Bakufu - New World Encyclopedia
While daimyos were very powerful, they were mere vassals to the Shogun, the military leader of the Japanese Empire. During the Tokugawa era, the Shogun was the de facto ruler of the country feudal territories and collected taxes from the feudal lords (daimyos). Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate . and returned from exile with his supporters, a trusted Kamakura general, In time, a balance of power evolved between the shogun and the daimyo; the.
But it certainly found other ways to bleed them economically. The daimyo were compelled to provide funds, labor, and materials for the grand construction projects of the bakufu. What was involved was nothing less than leveling a line of hills and filling in an inlet of Edo Bay. The vast citadel was built in stages and not finished until ; at one point, no fewer than 68 daimyo were actively engaged in this project. Edo Castle was but one example.
How important were the daimyo in the governing of Tokugawa J by Katy South-Jones on Prezi
And yet the shogun was not an unmitigated despot. The bakufu was not an autocratic but a bureaucratic organization. When calamities did strike and its public performance was called to account by that very fact, the shogunate had to demonstrate that it was indeed the true, legitimate, and fully sanctioned ruler of the entire realm—earthquakes, typhoons, and the plague of locusts notwithstanding.
Taking its national responsibilities seriously, the bakufu mounted relief efforts not only in its own territories but also in those of the daimyo. It distributed rice in famine-afflicted areas, subsidized flood control projects, and made loans available to financially troubled domains.
On balance, it surely gave as much as it took. Moreover, it was more than willing to share the task of governing the country with the han. To be sure, in that regard it was moved not by benevolence but by necessity. The shogunate could not do without the active assistance of the daimyo, whose domains after all covered the greater part of the country.
At any given time in the eighteenth century, about 15 percent of all shogunal granary lands were apt to be in the hands of such trustees. In northern Honshu—rich rice-producing regions such as Echigo Province now Niigata Prefecture — where almost a third of the demesne was located, the proportion of delegated trust territories was close to 30 percent.
Certainly, in the early stages of its existence, the bakufu aggrandized itself at the expense of the daimyo. But it could never contemplate doing away with them altogether.
It knew that creating a unitary system of national administration staffed by its own men was an impossibility—there were not enough of them to go around. The bakufu conducted its operations through an elaborate bureaucratic machinery. At its highest level in Edo, two policy-making boards assisted the shogun. Such a council had existed informally under various names from the foundation of the shogunate, but it was not institutionalized until its duties were defined at the end of the year This group was charged with national affairs.
Among its major tasks was overseeing the imperial court and the daimyo. Both councils may be regarded as the sounding boards of fudai interests. Only one can be said to have wielded real power—Ii Naosukethe lord of the great fudai domain of Hikone on the shore of Lake Biwa, who was appointed Great Elder in as the storm clouds of foreign intervention in Japanese affairs were brewing over the bakufu.
The most notorious case was Tanuma Okitsuguthe factotum of the tenth shogun, Tokugawa Yoshiharu ; ruled from The smaller machineries of the han in the aggregate occupied additional tens of thousands. These legions of functionaries were all of the samurai class, men whose hereditary profession, nominally, was arms.
Obviously—as one old warhorse remarked grumpily as early as the s—in an age of peace the abacus counted more than the sword, the taxman brought home more than the warrior, and one got promoted for smooth talk rather than rough deeds. In the course of the Tokugawa era the samurai were domesticated. They retained their monopoly on the right to inflict violence, but they lost their medieval ferocity.
Bureaucracy, not arms, became their profession. The daimyo ruled their han by virtue of their investiture by the shogun, the overlord to whom they were obliged to pledge allegiance before assuming their position as domanial lords. In other words, the daimyo gave up their freedom of action for something arguably of greater value —security.EU4 Guide: Shogun as Ryukyu (Three Mountains Vassal Swarm)
These retainers and their descendants remained on the duty rosters of the han long after there was anything left for them to do militarily.
They all had to be given at least the semblance of employment. For all too many of these samurai, however, there was little to do administratively, either. According to official records from the s, the Hirado han—a small to middling tozama domain located at the northwestern tip of Kyushu—also employed five inspectors general to make sure that its internal regulations were observed.
Its mission was the complete eradication of Christianity in Japan. Surely there was no need to eradicate Christianity where it had never taken root, and that was the case in most han. But, in fact, if the existence of an anti-Christian inquisition could be justified anywhere, it was in the Hirado domain. So they stayed vigilant and, indeed, in this matter they had little choice.
The shogunate required them to keep careful watch for subversive, un-Japanese activities and their alien fomenters. Daimyo came under the centralizing influence of the Tokugawa shogunate in two chief ways.
Second, since shogunate law took precedence within the country, the daimyo adopted within their domains the general principles of Tokugawa law and bureaucratic procedure. By the end of the Tokugawa regime, the daimyo had become removed from the actualities of government and basically served as aristocratic figureheads in their domains.
This in part accounted for the success of the effort to abolish the daimyo.
In the shogunate was abolished, and in the daimyo were obliged to turn back their land patents to the emperor, being made instead governors of territories corresponding roughly to their former domains. In the domains were abolished, and the former daimyo were converted into a pensioned nobility residing in Tokyo. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: What terms, specifically, did the United States want from Japan?
DAIMYO, SHOGUNS AND THE BAKUFU (SHOGUNATE)
These are the demands which you, as a group, must assess and decide how best to respond to. In your work group, select work roles. This person will record the most relevant findings and most persuasive information to use in the policy statement.
This person will select and order the visual images that support your position statement to the shogun. In addition to the roles above, all members of the group will work as fact finders and each fact finder will have a specific role in the process.
What is the nature of the threat—what kind of military technology do they have, in what numbers, and what does the Japanese government have with which to respond?
What is the situation in Japan? Select 10 examples from the visual record that will be useful in arguing a policy component focused on the military challenge and response. What aspects of U. How severe is this threat? How might Japan effectively respond? Select 10 examples from the visual record that will be useful in arguing a policy component focused on the cultural dimension of the challenge and response. In what way does American technology pose opportunities for Japan?