Hatshepsut | Kanopy
She was the queen of pharaoh, King Thutmose II and after he died, she focused on expanding economy and negotiating peaceful relations. The reign of Hatshepsut during Egypt's New Kingdom has sparked debate Her relationship with Thutmose III has provoked much debate by historians. After the death of her husband, Thutmose II, Hatshepsut didn't claim the title as a possible romantic relationship between Senenmut and Queen Hatshepsut.
She is depicted in several raised relief scenes from a Karnak gateway dating to Thutmose II's reign both together with her husband and alone.
Why Was Pharaoh Hatshepsut’s Reign Virtually Erased From History?
Some Egyptologists prefer to shorten his reign by a full decade to only three years because his highest Year Date is only a Year 1 II Akhet day 8 stela. Probably from a throne of a seated statue. It is still possible to estimate when Thutmose II's reign would have begun by means of a heliacal rise of Sothis in Amenhotep I 's reign, which would give him a reign from to BC,  although uncertainty about how to interpret the rise also permits a date from to BC,  and uncertainty about how long Thutmose I ruled could also potentially place his reign several years earlier still.
Nonetheless, scholars generally assign him a reign from or to Ineniwho was already aged by the start of Thutmose II's reign, lived through this ruler's entire reign into that of Hatshepsut.Hatshepsut Marriage to Thutmose II
A clear count of monuments from his rule, which is the principal tool for estimating a king's reign when dated documents are not available, is nearly impossible because Hatshepsut usurped most of his monuments, and Thutmose III in turn reinscribed Thutmose II's name indiscriminately over other monuments. Hatshepsut's reign is believed to have lasted for 21 years and 9 months. Gabolde highlighted, in his analysis, the consistently small number of surviving scarabs known for Thutmose II compared to Thutmose I and Hatshepsut respectively; for instance, Flinders Petrie 's older study of scarab seals noted 86 seals for Thutmose I, 19 seals for Thutmose II and seals for Hatshepsut while more recent studies by Jaeger estimate a total of seals for Thutmose I, seals for Hatshepsut and only 65 seals for Thutmose II.
On this basis, Gabolde estimated Thutmose I and II's reigns to be approximately 11 and 3 full years, respectively.
- Pharaoh Hatshepsut: Skillful And Efficient Female Ruler Who Brought Prosperity To Ancient Egypt
- Thutmose II
Consequently, the reign length of Thutmose II has been a much debated subject among Egyptologists with little consensus given the small number of surviving documents for his reign. Argument for a long reign[ edit ] Thutmose's reign is still traditionally given as 13 or 14 years. Although Ineni's autobiography can be interpreted to say that Thutmose reigned only a short time, it also calls Thutmose II a "hawk in the nest", indicating that he was perhaps a child when he assumed the throne.
The German Egyptologist, J. Von Beckerathuses this line of argument to support the case of a year reign for Thutmose II. Von Beckerath observes that a Year 18 date appears in a fragmentary inscription of an Egyptian official and notes that the date likely refers to Hatshepsut's prenomen Maatkare, which had been altered from Aakheperenre Thutmose II, with the reference to the deceased Thutmose II being removed.
This would create a gap of 13 to 14 years where Thutmose II's reign would fit in between Hatshepsut and Thutmose I's rule. These are the basic facts but the controversy rages around how to interpret them and based on my readings of various interpretations, this is what I think actually happened.
Senemut was a commoner and very influential with Hatshepsut, but given her attitude about the royal bloodline it is very unlikely that he was a lover or anything other than a favored advisor. While Senemut was very influential he suddenly drops out of the picture and disappears, but he falls from favor after visiting Thutmosis III, so the probability is that he said something that offended Thutmosis III — perhaps advocating the overthrow of his step mother.
Whatever happened between them is unknown but it was shortly after this visit to Thutmosis in Upper Egypt that he vanishes. Then we have Thutmosis II, the husband of Hatshepsut, whose reign — long or short — was not very noteworthy.
His campaigns were generally conducted by his generals and he was only present on rare occasions.
Thutmose II - Wikipedia
From what we do know, Hatshepsut considered herself the rightful heir and her husband as little more than an annoyance, but it seems quite logical that she was the real power. Furthermore, it is known that Thutmosis II suffered from some severe skin ailment that left him badly scarred. Plus his mummy indicates that he was not in robust health so this is another reason to suspect that Thutmosis II was not very active as Pharaoh and may have been little more that a figure head.
Of course the real mystery is what was the relationship between Hatshepsut and her step son or put another way, how did a man as strong as Thutmosis III allow his step-mother to reign as Pharaoh once he reached maturity. Of course no one knows the real answer but it is known that Hatshepsut raised Thutmosis as her own son and so she undoubtedly had an emotional connection prior to the death of her husband.
Given that Hatshepsut was the mother to Thutmosis III then based on what we know of people in general, the boy undoubtedly had a strong emotional tie to his mother — the Queen. If Thutmosis III was crowned at the age of nine and his mother acted as co-regent for two years, then it seems rather obvious that that was a clumsy arrangement.
The logical solution was to assume total control as Pharaoh, but it should be noted that Thutmosis III was not deposed, disgraced, or exiled, he simply disappears for a time.
During the reign of his mother Thutmosis was being trained as a soldier and he took part in various raids and skirmishes in Nubia. By the time he reached maturity Egypt he was a trained soldier living with his troops. His relationship with his step mother was clearly a solid one and Egypt prospered under her guidance.
It seems obvious that as a crowned Pharaoh, in command of a formidable army, he could have seized power from his step mother at any time, but did not. The logical conclusion is that he was satisfied with the way things were.
He liked being a soldier and he did not want to be burdened with the administration of the country. Then the question becomes, why did he attempt to eradicate all references to his mother once he became Pharaoh?