Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts - Wikipedia
India and Pakistan launched construction of a three-mile corridor between two .. a group with alleged ties to the Inter-Services Intelligence—Pakistan's main. Hindustani is the linga franca of North India and Pakistan, as well as under the standard registers Hindi and Urdu, respectively. Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex due to a number of historical and We want to move forward and have a civilised relationship. I hope.
East Bengali refugees InIndia recorded close to 1 million Hindu refugees, who flooded into West Bengal and other states from East Pakistan now Bangladeshowing to communal violence, intimidation and repression from authorities. The plight of the refugees outraged Hindus and Indian nationalists, and the refugee population drained the resources of Indian states, which were unable to absorb them.
Although many Indians termed this appeasement, Nehru signed a pact with Liaquat Ali Khan that pledged both nations to the protection of minorities and creation of minority commissions. Khan and Nehru also signed a trade agreement, and committed to resolving bilateral conflicts through peaceful means. Steadily, hundreds of thousands of Hindus returned to East Pakistan, but the thaw in relations did not last long, primarily owing to the Kashmir conflict. Afghanistan—India relations and Afghanistan—Pakistan relations Afghanistan and Pakistan have had their own historic rivalry over their border, the Durand Linewhich numerous Afghan governments have refused to recognize as the border.
This has led to strong tensions between the two countries and even military confrontationsresulting in Pakistan as victorious. Pakistan has long accused Afghanistan of harboring Baloch separatist rebels and attempting to sponsor separatist tendencies amongst its Pashtun and Baloch populations, going as far back as the s.
It has been believed that Pakistan during the s, then under Zulfikar Ali Bhuttoin retaliation began supporting Islamist factions in Afghanistan. The later Soviet intervention in Afghanistan to prevent further escalation and eventual Islamist takeover of the country proved disastrous afterwards. The United States and its allies feared direct Soviet involvement in Afghanistan and began aiding Pakistan's support for the Afghan Mujaheddin, in hopes of crippling the Soviet Union. The Soviet-Afghan war turned out to be a stalemate with heavy casualties on all sides and costly for the Soviets.
Under international agreement, the Soviets withdrew. But various Afghan factions fought one another and their external supporters, including the Soviet Union, Iran, Pakistan and others disagreed on which should be in power. Continued rival proxy support led to the civil warin which Pakistan supported in the Talibanseeking to secure its interests in Afghanistan and providing strategic support, while India and Afghanistan's other neighbors backed the Northern Alliance.
After the Taliban defeated the Northern Alliance in much of Afghanistan in the Afghan Civil Warthe Taliban regime continued to be supported by Pakistan — one of the three countries to do so — before the 11 September attacks.
India firmly opposed the Taliban and criticized Pakistan for supporting it. India established its links with the Northern Alliance as India officially recognized their government, with the United Nations. India's relations with AfghanistanPakistan's neighbor, and its increasing presence there has irked Pakistan.
The Indian embassy bombing in Kabul was a suicide bomb terror attack on the Indian embassy in KabulAfghanistan on 7 July at 8: Bush confronted Pakistani Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani with evidence and warned him that in the case of another such attack he would have to take "serious action". Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir According to some reports published by the Council of Foreign Relationsthe Pakistan military and the ISI have provided covert support to terrorist groups active in Kashmirincluding the al-Qaeda affiliate Jaish-e-Mohammed.
Many Kashmiri militant groups also maintain their headquarters in Pakistan-administered Kashmirwhich is cited as further proof by the Indian government. Author Gordon Thomas stated that Pakistan "still sponsored terrorist groups in the state of Kashmir, funding, training and arming them in their war on attrition against India.
A car bomb exploded near the Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly on 1 Octoberkilling 27 people on an attack that was blamed on Kashmiri separatists. It was one of the most prominent attacks against India apart from on the Indian Parliament in December The dead bodies of the terrorists and the data recovered from them revealed that Pakistan was solely responsible for the activity. On 13 Julyarmed men believed to be a part of the Lashkar-e-Toiba threw hand grenades at the Qasim Nagar market in Srinagar and then fired on civilians standing nearby killing twenty-seven and injuring many more.
Abdul Ghani Lone, a prominent All Party Hurriyat Conference leader, was assassinated by an unidentified gunmen during a memorial rally in Srinagar. The assassination resulted in wide-scale demonstrations against the Indian occupied-forces for failing to provide enough security cover for Mr. A car bomb exploded near an armoured Indian Army vehicle in the famous Church Lane area in Srinagar killing four Indian Army personnel, one civilian and the suicide bomber.
Terrorist group Hizbul Mujahideenclaimed responsibility for the attack. A terrorist attack on 29 July at Srinigar 's city centre, Budshah Chowk, killed two and left more than 17 people injured. Most of those injured were media journalists.
No Terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attack.
A terrorist attack by four heavily armed terrorists on 18 Septembernear the town of Uri in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir, killed 18 and left more than 20 people injured. It was reported as "the deadliest attack on security forces in Kashmir in two decades". India blamed Pakistan for carrying out the attacks, an allegation which Pakistan strongly denied and one that brought both nations to the brink of a nuclear confrontation in — However, international peace efforts ensured the cooling of tensions between the two nuclear-capable nations.
Continued Pakistani ambivalence toward the Taliban stems in part from its concern that India is trying to encircle it by gaining influence in Afghanistan.
India in fact has increased its presence in Afghanistan significantly since the fall of the Taliban structure in late It is one of the major donors for the reconstruction of the country, with over a billion dollars pledged for a wide variety of projects all over the country. Many of these projects are in the Pashtun south, a clear effort to revive links to the Pashtuns that were once so close in the last days of the British Empire in South Asia.
India is also paying for the construction of a splendid new parliament building in Kabul as part of its support for the democratic process in Afghanistan. It is building a major highway project in the west bordering on Iran. An estimated 4, Indians are in Afghanistan working on development projects, including highways and bridges, cold storage facilities, health centers, and electrical generating facilities. An increasingly globalizing India is concerned about the well-being of its diaspora here and elsewhere.
India has dispatched some paramilitary Indo-Tibetan border police to guard its workers following attacks on them such as an April 12, suicide bombing that killed two Indian highway engineers in Nimruz Province.
There are also news reports of Indian offers to train senior personnel of the Afghan armed forces in India.
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India is the largest donor for educational training and provides scholarships for hundreds of Afghan students and officials to study in India each year. India has a soft diplomacy advantage in the popularity of its film and music industry. None of its neighbors has anything comparable to compete, and the Afghan film and music industries were virtually eliminated during the austere Taliban period.
Within days of the defeat of the Taliban in latefor example, billboards advertizing Indian films sprang up all over Kabul. CDs of Indian film music appeared on the shelves of shops as if by magic all over the city. The craze for things India has spilled over into clothing, food and art. India in addition is investing significant sums in the Iranian port at Charbahar to gain entry to trade with Afghanistan and the Central Asian republics.
InFocus: Terrorism and its Impact on Pakistan-India Relations
It is also assisting in the construction of road and rail links from Charbahar to the Iranian border with Afghanistan and the Central Asian republics. These Indian links to Afghanistan also have the advantage of avoiding the unstable Pashtun areas of Afghanistan south of the Hindu Kush mountain chain that runs through the middle of the country.
The purpose of this Pakistani policy of exclusion is almost certainly for use as a lever on issues of dispute, like Kashmir. However, it has had limited success so far and undermines a basic US policy.
Essay on the “Relationship between India-Pakistan” in Hindi
I think it would suit US interests in the region to pressure Pakistan to lift this prohibition against India trade. For the first time, Pakistan would be deprived of a veto power over Indian trading with Afghanistan.
This could have implications for US efforts in Afghanistan if Pakistan would follow through on threats to block US resupply of its troops in Afghanistan. Terrorism in South Asia is a regional problem, as is becoming increasingly clear by the demonstrated links among Islamic terrorist groups whose tentacles reach across state boundaries.
Transforming regional security perceptions among the Afghans, Pakistanis and Indians will be a monumental challenge, but constitutes the only way to stabilize and secure Afghanistan so that it does not again become a terrorist sanctuary.
The US in particular will have to focus on promoting regional cooperation among all three countries and defusing conflict between New Delhi and Islamabad, on the one hand, and Kabul and Islamabad on the other.
More specifically, the US will have to consider other initiatives that reduce Pakistani fears of Indian hegemony and how the US can improve its own ties to New Delhi without setting off alarm bells in Islamabad. China, which is also trying to improve its relations with India and also faces the growing menace of terrorism that has roots in South Asia, confronts a similar dilemma as it reformulates its South Asia policy.
India as the larger and stronger party will need to take the initiative. Indian policy toward Pakistan, while complicated by Kashmir and the cross border terr orist menace, has shifted somewhat over the past decade as the country has become a more self-confident player on the world scene. This policy is favored by the major national political actor e.
It would not provide a similar opening to the Chinese. If a major effort is not launched to achieve regional stability, the danger of course is a revival of Indian Pakistani tensions, always dangerous for two countries possessing nuclear weapons and the means to deliver them. There is fortunately an institutional basis for negotiations, the Composite Dialogue that was initiated in early and was to address the big outstanding issueswhich followed a cease fire along the Line of Control in Kashmir that has by and large held since then.
An insurgency in Kashmir has been a cause for heightened tensions.
- Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts
- India–Pakistan relations
- India, Pakistan need to take steps to improve relationship: US
India has also accused Pakistan-backed militant groups of executing several terrorist attacks across India. Further clashes erupted in the glacial area inand as Pakistan sought, without success, to oust India from its stronghold.
The dispute lies in the interpretation of the maritime boundary line between Kutch and Sindh. After India's independence inSindh became a part of Pakistan while Kutch became a part of India. Pakistan lays claim to the entire creek as per paras 9 and 10 of the Bombay Government Resolution of  signed between the then Government of Sindh and Rao Maharaj of Kutch.
Most violations occur due to the absence of a physical boundary and lack of navigational tools for small fishermen. Hundreds of fishermen are arrested by the Coast Guards of both nations, but obtaining their release is difficult and long-winded owing to the hostile relations between the two nations. The princely state of Junagadhwhich had a Hindu majority and a Muslim ruler acceded to Pakistan on 15 Septemberclaiming a connection by sea. Pakistan's acceptance of the Instrument of Accession was seen as a strategy to get a plebiscite held in Kashmir which had a Muslim majority and a Hindu ruler.
Following communal tensions Indian military entered the territory which was protested by Pakistan as a violation of International law. Later a plebiscite was held and the accession was reversed for the state to join India. The terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament on 13 Decemberwhich India blamed on the Pakistan-based terrorist organisations, Lashkar-e-Taiba and Jaish-e-Mohammedprompted the — India—Pakistan standoff and brought both sides close to war.
Following ten coordinated shooting and bombing attacks across MumbaiIndia's largest city, tensions heightened between the two countries since India claimed interrogation results alleging   Pakistan's ISI supporting the attackers while Pakistan denied it.कश्मीर समस्या क्या है - Indian History - पूरा विश्लेषण हिंदी में - UPSC/IAS/SSC
On 18 Septembermilitants attacked the Indian Army's brigade headquarters at Urikilling 19 soldiers. The attack came after two months of extreme unrest in Kashmir, caused due to the killing of Hizbul Mujahideen commander Burhan Wani in an encounter with Indian security forces.
Amid high tensions and risk of escalation along the Line of Controlten days after the attack, on 29 Septemberthe Indian Army carried out a military raid in Pakistan-Administered-Kashmirtargeting launchpads along the LoC, the de facto border between India and Pakistan. The soldier was eventually released as a goodwill gesture from the Pakistani side, and ceasefire violations stopped on either side as tensions were defused and normalcy returned to the Kashmir valley.