Ancient Rome: Plebeians and Patricians
aristocracy of patricians were classified as plebeians, largely drawn from peasants, but also Since the clientage was a "voluntary" relationship based on trust. This paper looks at the roles of patrician and plebeian Roman women in their religion. .. implications of the different relationships between festivals, and to pull out the women's .. retain control over their dowries in trust for their daughters Patronage (clientela) was the distinctive relationship in ancient Roman society between the and the qualities of fides ("trust, reliability") on the part of the patron and the pietas bodies of ancient Roman society, the patricians and the plebeians. In the earliest periods, patricians would have served as patrons; both .
Eventually, the plebeians gained a number of rights including the right to run for office and marry patricians. The Twelve Tables were laws that were posted in the public for all to see. They protected some basic rights of all Roman citizens regardless of their social class. Plebeian Officers Eventually the plebeians were allowed to elect their own government officials. They elected "tribunes" who represented the plebeians and fought for their rights. They had the power to veto new laws from the Roman senate.
Plebeian Nobles As time went on, there became few legal differences between the plebeians and the patricians. The plebeians could be elected to the senate and even be consuls. Plebeians and patricians could also get married.
Wealthy plebeians became part of the Roman nobility. However, despite changes in the laws, the patricians always held a majority of the wealth and power in Ancient Rome.
Around one third of the people living in Rome were slaves. One of Rome's most famous senators, Cicero, was a plebeian. Because he was the first of his family to be elected to the senate, he was called a "New Man.Phylosophy - Patricians and Plebeians
Julius Caesar was a patrician, but he was sometimes considered a champion of the common people. The Plebeian Council was led by the elected tribunes. Many new laws were passed by the Plebeian Council because the procedures were simpler than in the senate.
Patronage in ancient Rome - Wikipedia
The Plebeian Council lost its power with the fall of the Roman Republic. Freshmen students in the United States military academies are nicknamed "plebs.
One of the consuls, Appius, because of his harsh temper, called for the uprising to be quelled by the authority of the consuls. The other consul, Servilius, who was of a more mild disposition, called for some concession to be granted to the populace to convince them to retire from the forum.
Some Latin horsemen arrived in Rome to announce that a Volscian army had invaded their territories, and requested Roman assistance. The Roman people refused to enroll as soldiers on account of their outstanding complaints. The senate, dejected, sent the consul Servilius to attempt to break the impasse. Servilius proceeded to the assembly, and advised the people that the senate had been giving consideration to measures to alleviate the public concerns, but had been interrupted by news of the invasion.
He exhorted the people to put aside their complaints momentarily to allow Rome united to face the common enemy. Further, he announced an edict that no Roman citizen should be detained, either in chains or in prison, from enrolling to fight, and that no soldier should, whilst serving in the army, have his goods seized or sold, nor his children or grandchildren arrested. Immediately the debtors who had been under arrest were released, and enrolled their names and, following them, crowds of the Roman people congregated in the forum to take the military oath.
Immediately afterwards, Servilius led out the army to face the Volsci. The Volsci initially sought to take advantage of the Roman divisions by making an attempt on the Roman camp in the night in order to elicit some treachery or desertions; however, the Romans remained united, and on the following day the Volsci were defeated and the town of Suessa Pometia plundered.
However, the situation was inflamed by the consul Appius who acted contrary to popular expectations by issuing severe decrees regarding debt, with the effect that debtors who had previously been released from imprisonment were delivered back to their creditors, and further persons were taken into custody.
A soldier to whom the new decree applied made appeals to the other consul Servilius, and a crowd gathered to remind Servilius of his previous promises, and also of the people's service in war, and called upon him to bring the matter before the senate. But the mood of the patricians was in favour of the approach of Appius, and so Servilius was left in a position where he could take no steps to intervene on behalf of the people, and earned the disfavour of both factions as a result: The senate referred the decision to the popular assembly, and also decreed that whichever consul was chosen should also exercise additional duties, including presiding over the markets, establishing a merchants' guild, and exercising the functions of the pontifex maximus.
The people, in order to spite the senate and the consuls, instead awarded the honour to the senior military officer of one of the legions named Marcus Laetorius.
However the people were not restrained. Upon seeing a debtor being led to the courts, a mob formed and violence erupted. The crowd protected the debtors and turned instead upon the creditors.
The consul's decrees were barely heard, and ignored, and the creditors were harassed within sight of one of the consuls. However the decree was ignored, and nobody enlisted. He blamed Servilius and said that Servilius, by his silence had betrayed the republic by failing to pass sentence upon the debtors and to enrol the army levies.
Appius vowed that by himself he would uphold the republic, and the dignity of his office and of the senate. He sought to intervene by ordering the arrest of one of the ringleaders of the sedition. The lictors seized the man and sought to carry him away; however, he sought to exercise his right of appeal to the people. Appius sought to prevent the appeal, but was convinced otherwise by the leading men.
This impasse, and an increased level of sedition and secret meetings, continued until the conclusion of the consuls' term of office.
Meanwhile the people held regular nightly meetings, sometimes on the Esquiline Hill and other times upon the Aventine Hill. The consuls got wind of these meetings, and put the matter before the senate. However the senate was so outraged that the consuls had not used the authority of their office to prevent these meetings that it was not at first possible to hold any vote. The senators rebuked the consuls for failing to act, and the consuls enquired as to the will of the senate.
- The Social War, Marius, Sulla & Caesar: Patricians vs. Plebeians Global History I Spiconardi.
- Patronage in ancient Rome
In response, the senate decreed that the army levies should be enrolled as quickly as possible, in order to distract the people from their sedition. Instead, a crowd of the people gathered, and told the consul that nobody would do so until the public rights and liberties were restored.
The consuls were at a loss, and fearing some great disturbance if the issue were pressed, instead returned to the senate for further guidance. But the consuls told the senate that the disturbances were more serious and more advanced than the senate realised, and invited the senators to attend the forum to observe the difficulties faced by the consuls in enrolling the levies.
The consuls, accompanied by some senators, then returned to the rostra, and again called for the enlistment of one man whom the consuls knew was most unwilling to agree. The man, surrounded by his supporters, did not respond.
The consuls sent a lictor to seize the man, but the man's supporters threw the lictor back. The senators, shocked at this, tried to help, but were also pushed away, and a greater disturbance was only averted by the timely intervention of the consuls. Those senators who had been involved in the incident called for a criminal inquiry, and there was a great deal of tumult and shouting particularly amongst the most extreme elements of the senate.
The consuls upbraided them for being as unruly as the people in the forum, and a vote was held.
First secessio plebis
Three propositions were considered. The consul of the previous year, Appius Claudius, said that the people's licentiousness and lack of fear of the consequences of their behaviour came from their right of appeal to the popular assembly. He called for the appointment of a dictator from whom no appeal could be made. On the other hand Titus Lartius advocated that measures should be put in place for the relief of the debt issues which had given rise to the people's complaints.
As a middle ground, another senator Publius Virginius it is unclear whether he was related to the consul proposed that the relief suggested by Lartius should only be extended to those persons who served in the army in the recent wars against the Aurunci and the Sabines.