History of European Union–United Kingdom relations - Wikipedia
As the divorce part of the Brexit negotiations approach their endgame, attention is turning to the future relationship between the UK and EU. Customs Arrangement with the United Kingdom; Referendum of the United Kingdom's membership of the EU; Jersey's relationship with the United Kingdom . Britain and the European Union agreed a draft text setting out a close post-Brexit relationship, officials said, though wrangling with Spain over.
The existing models show that there will always be trade-offs. They are unlikely to grant the UK an easy deal.
Greater access in one area must be balanced against greater costs or obligations in another: Here we outline the key options within each building block, set out some of the likely trade-offs that will shape any future deal. Different degrees of access to the pillars of the single market are possible, ranging from full membership of the single market which removes all barriers to the free movement of goods, services and people within the EU area, including tariffs and quotas ; to limited access to trade in goods allowed under WTO rules, with quotas and tariffs strictly applied.
Full membership of the single market is only possible as a member of the EU. Norway, which, as a member of European Free Trade Agreement EFTA and the European Economic Area EEAhas the closest relationship to the EU without being a member state, has a high degree of access to the single market in goods, services and people, but with some limitations - some quotas remain in place on raw agricultural goods.
Countries with a free trade agreement with the EU — such as Singapore and Canada — have access to the single market in goods, but such agreements rarely cover trade in services or free movement of people.
The future relationship between the United Kingdom and the European Union
The three pillars of the single market are closely related — greater access to one often requires greater access to all. My government will always defend the interests of Spain. If there are no changes, we will veto Brexit.
Is Spain's PM grandstanding to win votes? With Spain, France and other EU member states lobbying for various national vested interests in that political declaration - a page wishlist on future trade and security ties separate from the page withdrawal agreement - there was concern in Brussels that haggling could get out of hand and derail Sunday's tightly choreographed formal summit of the 27 leaders with May. While the withdrawal agreement only requires a qualified majority not unanimity, the EU always seeks consensus on such sensitive matters.
Parked EU sources told Reuters that other demands from governments would now be parked in a separate page or two of short text to be endorsed at the summit. French calls for access to British fishing grounds and insistence that post-Brexit Britain follow EU environment, tax, labour and industrial rules are largely drafted, leaving a gap for Spain's concerns that Madrid be given an effective veto over applying any future deal to Gibraltar.
Brexit negotiations at 'critical moment' EU diplomats said they hoped Spain could accept a statement, similar to one made before the withdrawal negotiations, that nothing in a future EU-UK treaty would apply to Gibraltar unless Madrid consented to that after bilateral talks with London. The main text of the political declaration said the EU and Britain "agree to develop an ambitious, wide-ranging and balanced economic partnership.
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It also emphasised that a trade deal could be reached relatively quickly. Ireland hopes this carrot will help May rally support in Westminster for the Withdrawal Agreement, though the ongoing political turmoil in the UK dampened some of the initial glow of success. Even so, the Withdrawal Agreement itself was perceived by the Irish government and by Irish commentators as a great diplomatic achievement, not just for the Irish government and the EU, but for May, too.
The position of the Spanish authorities — which have acted during this phase of the negotiations according to the principle of good faith — is very clear. If the British withdrawal text and the immediate political declaration on the future relationship between the UK and EU do not expressly clarify that Gibraltar is not part of the UK, Spain will veto this agreement.
History of European Union–United Kingdom relations
This is because Spain wants to make sure, in accordance with international law and in the numerous resolutions adopted by the UN General Assembly on this longstanding issuethat the Rock cannot automatically benefit — without the prior approval of Spain — from the advantages agreed in a future deal between London and Brussels. This issue obviously forces both the UK and EU to urgently modify the controversial Article of the draft Withdrawal Agreementwhich was included at the last minute at British request without Michel Barnier previously informing Spain, and hinders the recognised capacity of Spain to negotiate directly with the UK on the future of Gibraltar in the post-Brexit context.
British strategy, and the unforgivable negligence of the European negotiator on this issue, could frustrate the forthcoming Brexit summit this Sunday. Rocky territory for negotiators.
Options for the future UK-EU relationship | The UK and Europe | Debates | E!Sharp
But it must negotiate with the UK on how to maintain the security of any open borders — particularly as security has become such an integral issue for the EU in recent years. Using this as leverage, the French government of president Emmanuel Macron could more easily defend its line on the delicate issue of fishing. It wants to create a united front among EU member states in favour of maintaining access to British waters for EU fishermen after Brexit.