Staging prostate cancer and its relationship to prognosis for liver

Isolated Hepatic Metastasis from Prostate Carcinoma

staging prostate cancer and its relationship to prognosis for liver

Worldwide, prostate cancer is considered the second most common cancer in men. Staging PET scan showed no other metastatic disease. The initial differential diagnosis included primary hepatic or possible metastatic disease from . Correlation between sites and number of organs involved. Cancer. Your healthcare team uses the stage to plan treatment and estimate the The most common staging system for liver cancer is the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer. Staging a cancer helps determine the prognosis of the disease, which is the of the tumor, liver function, performance status, and cancer-related symptoms.

Radical prostatectomy means that the entire prostate gland is removed from around the tube that connects the bladder to the penis the urethra. This surgery can be done in two different ways, the retropubic approach and the perineal approach.

staging prostate cancer and its relationship to prognosis for liver

The retropubic approach means that incision in made in the lower abdomen, while the perineal approach means that the incision is made between the scrotum and the anus. Often times during a retropubic approach, the surgeon will remove some lymph nodes in the area and have them quickly examined by a pathologist for signs of cancer.

If the nodes have cancer, then the surgeon will not to proceed with the operation. This is the major reason a retropubic approach is used in most surgeries today.

Survival Rates for Prostate Cancer

Radical prostatectomies are very safe surgeries with few life threatening complications; however, there is a significant risk for other side effects. Both urinary incontinence not being able to hold in your urine and impotence inability to achieve and maintain an erection are commonly associated with this procedure. Sometimes, particularly with lower grade and smaller cancers, a nerve sparing prostatectomy can be performed. This type of prostatectomy can decrease the chance that you will be impotent after the procedure.

Determining The Prostate Cancer Survival Rate

However, there is always a risk and not every patient is a candidate for a nerve sparing prostatectomy. The risk for impotency and incontinence increases with age; this is why younger men are often recommended to have surgery while older men are recommended to have radiation. The skill of your particular surgeon also influences your chances of having these side effects during a radical prostatectomy. Another surgical approach, which is being used more and more commonly, is the robot-assisted radical prostatectomy RAP.

As with non-robotic prostatectomy techniques, the entire prostate is removed. To perform the procedure, several tiny incisions are made in the patient's abdomen and long, thin laparoscopic instruments are inserted and attached to the robot. The robot moves the instruments according to the instruction of the urologist who is seated at the robotic console.

Therefore, the surgeon is controlling the movement of the robot the whole time. RAP has some advantages over traditional prostatectomy techniques, which include decreased blood loss and shorter hospitalization and recovery. However, it is more costly, and also carries the risks of impotence and incontinence.

Research studies have found that cancer cure rates with RAP are equivalent to traditional radical prostatectomy. Of course, as with all surgical techniques, success will depend in part on the skill and experience of the surgeon.

Talk to your surgeon about their complication rates before your operation. With surgery, urinary incontinence and impotence are often most severe right after the operation and generally get better with time.

There are things that your doctors can recommend to help you with either of these problems. Talk to your urologist about your options.

Radiation Prostate cancer is commonly treated with radiation therapy.

What Happens When Prostate Cancer Spreads to the Bones?

Radiation therapy uses high energy rays similar to x-rays to kill cancer cells. Radiation therapy is another option besides surgery for early stage prostate cancer. In advanced stage prostate cancer, treatment is usually done with radiation therapy.

Radiation helps avoid surgery in patients who are too ill to risk having anesthesia.

staging prostate cancer and its relationship to prognosis for liver

Radiation is usually offered to older patients in the case of early stage prostate cancer because its side effect profile may be more favorable than surgery in the elderly. Radiation can have impotence rates similar to surgery, but the risk of urinary incontinence is very low. Impotence develops months to years after the radiation treatment, unlike with surgery, which tends to have the side effects occur immediately.

Other side effects from radiation include bladder irritation, which can cause urinary frequency and urgency as well as bladder pain, and diarrhea or rectal bleeding. Your radiation oncologist tries to limit the amount of radiation to other organs, but often the bladder and rectum can get some dosage because they are in such close proximity to the prostate.

Radiation therapy for prostate cancer either comes from an external source external beam radiation or an internal source where small radioactive seeds are implanted into the patient's prostate brachytherapy. Which type is right for me? External beam radiation therapy requires patients to come in 5 days a week for up weeks to a radiation therapy treatment center. The treatment takes just a few minutes, and it is painless. Brachytherapy is done as a one-time insertion, in the operating room.

staging prostate cancer and its relationship to prognosis for liver

Brachytherapy cannot be done in all patients and is usually reserved for early stage prostate cancers. Your radiation oncologist can answer questions about the utility, process, and side effects of both of these types of radiation therapy in your particular case.

All About Prostate Cancer | OncoLink

Another form of external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer uses protons rather than x-rays to kill tumor cells. Protons are the positively charged components within the nucleus of an atom. They are used to deliver radiation because they deposit most of their cell-killing energy within the tumor site in this case, the prostate glandthus delivering less dose to the tissues where the proton beams entered, and virtually no dose beyond the area being treated so-called "exit dose".

staging prostate cancer and its relationship to prognosis for liver

Protons may have a theoretical advantage, but so far there is little evidence to "prove" that they superior. In fact not even surgery and radiation have been compared head to head, let alone proton radiation and x-ray radiation. To determine which treatment is best, large numbers of men would have to participate in a randomized trial, and be followed for several years to determine outcomes. Even though there are many challenges to carrying out this kind of study, the investigations into proton therapy continue to move forward.

Hormonal Deprivation Therapy Both normal prostate tissue and prostate cancers depend on male sex hormones, called androgens, to grow and replicate. Testosterone is an androgen that is very important to the prostate gland. Men make androgens in their testicles. One of the ways to treat prostate cancer is to remove androgens from the bodythus making the cancer shrink and then grow more slowly.

There are a few different ways to remove androgens: Different methods of deceasing androgens are often used in the same patient: Hormone therapy can also be used in conjunction with other treatments, especially in the case of advanced stage prostate cancer being treated with radiation therapy.

In that case, hormonal therapy is often given before the radiation and this is known as neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy. Another use for hormones is in patients who present with metastatic disease.

After a while, all prostate cancers will become resistant to hormonal therapy. However, this often takes many years and hormonal therapy can increase survival time in patients with extensive disease or patients who choose not to undergo surgery or radiation.

There are a number of side effects associated with hormonal therapy. Hormonal therapy will almost universally cause impotence and the loss of your sex drive. It can also cause breast enlargement, hot flashes, and muscle and bone loss osteoporosis.

There are some things your doctors can prescribe to help with bone loss and hot flashes, but little can be done about loss of libido and impotence. Survival rates tell you what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time usually 5 years after they were diagnosed. What is a 5-year survival rate? Statistics on the outlook for a certain type and stage of cancer are often given as 5-year survival rates, but many people live longer — often much longer — than 5 years.

The 5-year survival rate is the percentage of people who live at least 5 years after being diagnosed with cancer. Keep in mind, however, that many of these people live much longer than 5 years after diagnosis. Relative survival rates are a more accurate way to estimate the effect of cancer on survival. These rates compare men with prostate cancer to men in the overall population. But remember, all survival rates are estimates — your outlook can vary based on a number of factors specific to you.

There are a number of limitations to remember: The numbers below are among the most current available. But to get 5-year survival rates, doctors have to look at men who were treated at least 5 years ago.