Damianita, Hierba de San Nicolas, False Damiana, Mariola, Romerillo, Garanona, San Nicolas, Calanca, Yeyepaxtle Chrysactinia mexicana. Asteraceae. Chrysactinia mexicana: Damianita in hot, dry climates. Scientific: Chrysactinia mexicana. Common: damianita (now that’s weird) Family: Asteraceae Origin: High deserts of NE Arizona, SE Utah and SW Colorado to.
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Gray Asteraceae and Turnera diffusa Willd Turneraceae are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C.
The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C.
Chrysactinia mexicana, Damianita, Southwest Desert Flora
The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation.
The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C.
Sexual interaction is an important factor for social and biological relationships in human life. Alterations in sexual activity may affect not only the health, but also the quality of human life. Studies carried out in the U. In this case, medicinal plants comprise an alternative for improving sexual health, facilitating aspects of sexual performance, and increasing the libido [ 2 ]. This information derives from ethnomedical reports, which attribute prosexual effects to a group of plants, although scientific information of their pharmacological properties is not widely published.
Investigation suggests that these substances may act at the level of the Central Nervous System CNS by altering specific neurotransmitters or sex hormones [ 3 ]. In this respect, herbal preparations considered as aphrodisiacs in traditional medicine may produce their effects by stimulating targets in the CNS.
In North America, C. Due to its putative aphrodisiac properties, C. Both species share the yellow color of their flowers and fragrance, but they possess morphological differences, that is, shape of leaves and stems. In both species, there is also chemical similarity, that is, apigenin, and its glucoside derivatives are present in each in significant amounts.
Crude extracts of T. In these animals, extracts of T. Besides, in a previous study, we showed that a standardized aqueous extract of T. Sexual exhaustion also denominated sexual satiation is considered a paradigm of the central inhibition of male sexual behavior [ 11 ], which led us to propose that the extract of T. Sexual exhaustion in male rats is a phenomenon that appears after sustained copulation with a single sexually receptive female.
Sexual satiation has been mainly studied in male rats, and males of other mammalian species, such as hamster [ 12 ], guinea pig [ 13 ], rabbit [ 14 ], and Rhesus macaque [ 15 ] demonstrated similar behavior after sustained sexual activity. There is evidence that copulation to satiation induces physiological changes that include transient modifications in brain functions [ 1718 ].
Several pharmacological studies have shown that sexual exhaustion is reversed by drugs that affect different neurotransmiter systems, such as the serotonergic i. Regarding the effects of T. The aim of this research was to evaluate the prosexual effects of a standardized aqueous extract of C. The actions of this extract were compared with those produced by a standardized aqueous extract of T. Additionally, the effects of treatments in the Open Field Test OFT were determined for discarding nonspecific effects i.
Rats had free access to water and food during all experiments. The protocol was approved by the local Ethics Committee. Gray Asteraceae aerial parts were collected in State of Morelos, Mexico. The aqueous extracts evaluated here were obtained and chemically characterized previously by our work group [ 102122 ]. The yield was Aqueous extracts Cm and Td were dissolved in saline 0. Independent groups of SExh males were per os p.
Doses were chosen in pilot studies carried out at our laboratory. Male rats were trained for sexual experience in five sessions, one session per week, with sexually receptive females. For induction of receptivity, ovariectomized female rats were treated in a sequential manner with estradiol benzoate Sigma-Aldrich, St.
A novel sexually receptive female was used to stimulate sexual behavior in males. The sexual behavior test was immediately finished after the following: Two observers quantified three components of male sexual behavior: These observations were employed to calculate the percentage of animals that expressed mounts, intromissions, ejaculations, and resumption of copulation, as well as the total number of mounts NM and intromissions NI that preceded ejaculation; intromission latency time from introduction of female to experimental cage to the occurrence of the first intromission, ILejaculation latency time from the first intromission to male achieving ejaculation, ELand postejaculatory interval time from ejaculation to first intromission of a second ejaculatory series, PEI.
Results were expressed as mean standard error of the mean SEM. Facilitation of the expression of male sexual behavior was reported when treatments increased the proportion of males able to execute mounts and intromissions and to achieve ejaculation.
Reversal of sexual exhaustion was determined by a significant increase in the percentage of rats able to resume copulation after ejaculation from the beginning of copulation taking the first intromission into account. In order to discard possible unspecific effects due to drugs, actions of treatments on ambulation were evaluated in an OFT.
One week after the final sexual behavior evaluation, chysactinia rats were randomly assigned to the treatments cbrysactinia per group following a Latin square design, in which each rat has the same opportunity to receive any treatment. One h after drug administration, the rats were tested in a Plexiglass cage with the floor divided into 12 equal squares. Results were expressed as mean number of counts SEM. The proportion of copulating animals was analyzed utilizing the Fisher F -test.
Data that meet the criteria of linearity and equality of variance were analyzed using parametric tests, while data that did not meet them were analyzed with nonparametric tests. Paired comparisons between each dose of Cm or vehicle versus Td or yohimbine were carried out with a Mann Whitney U test. Twenty four h after prolonged copulation, sexually satiated males of the control group rats treated chrysactiniw the vehicle showed chrysctinia inhibition of sexual behavior determined by a reduction in the number of subjects able to demonstrate regular sexual behavior.
None of these SExh males was able to restart copulation after the single ejaculation. Treatments utilized here stimulated SExh males to engage in one or more behaviors within the context of chryssactinia. Male rats treated with Cm or Td extracts or yohimbine exhibited a normal pattern of movements during the course of copulation, which was not different from that shown by satiated males receiving the vehicle, or even from sexually experienced males observations from the same males prior to the sexual exhaustion test.
Thus, treated rats did not exhibit hyper- or hypoactivity nor stereotyped or circling movements in the mexlcana behavior test as compared with those treated with vehicle. This latter dose also increased the proportion of males that restarted copulation after ejaculation. The effect of Cm on the expression of sexual behavior was doses-dependent in the percentage of animals that executed mounts and intromissions. Analysis of the specific parameters of male sexual behavior was performed only in Mexicwna rats that exhibited sexual behavior.
Treatment with Cm produced no significant effects on IL H 0. Td did not increase the NI with respect to the vehicle control group Figure 2 a. In the vehicle-control group, no satiated male was able to normally copulate with fresh, sexually receptive females.
Under these conditions, paired comparisons showed that Cm at higher dose, Td, and yohimbine significantly reduced the PEI regarding this arbitrary value.
Medium and lower doses of Cm were not included in the analysis, because only one subject per group was able to resume copulation after ejaculation. Treatment with Cm produced significant changes F 5. Effect of Cm at lower dose was not significantly different from the vehicle control group.
In this test treatments did not induce alterations in general motor activity, that is, stereotypes or circling behavior. Many herbal therapies show some potential benefits in improving male sexual function [ 25 ]; however, the therapeutic potential of these medicinal plants requires the support of the scientific evidence for validating their putative effects and safety. Our results represent the first evidence that an aqueous extract of C.
Animal models to evaluate male sexual behavior in chrysactnia laboratory usually constituted of rodents expressing different levels of sexual activity, such as sexually experienced or sluggish rats, which have shorter or longer ejaculation latencies, among other mexicna [ 26 ].
On the other hand, the main feature of the sexual exhaustion paradigm is the central inhibition of male sexual behavior stimulated by repeated copulation with a single sexually receptive female [ 162327 ].
Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center – The University of Texas at Austin
According to the literature, sexual satiation involves three phases [ 28 ]. Results of the present study chryszctinia in agreement with this information, in that the sexually competent males utilized for our experiment presented all phases until reaching the sexual exhaustion state by means of free copulation. Current experiments revealed that in SExh males the treatment with chrysacinia aqueous extract of C. According to the interpretation of sexual exhaustion paradigm and its regulation by drugs, a treatment is considered to reverse sexual satiety if it significantly increases the proportion of males that achieve ejaculation and resume copulation after ejaculation [ 16 ].
This pharmacological effect is chrysactinix by an ample number of drugs that affect different neurotransmitter systems [ 112930 ]. In agreement with these, the present results provide evidence that the standardized extract of Cm at a high dose produces the reversal of sexual exhaustion state. In traditional medicine, C. Therefore, in the present study, the prosexual effects of Cm were compared with those of Td and yohimbine, employed as a reference drug with known effects on sexual exhaustion [ 20 ].
Our results demonstrated that both extracts improved the expression of sexual behavior in an equivalent manner, that is, allowing The extracts also produced similar effects on the reversal of sexual satiation, because Cm increased the percentage of SExh males that resumed sexual activity at This difference in pharmacological potency may have implications for the ethnomedical use of species as aphrodisiac remedies.
This result agrees with data from previous literature demonstrating the high efficacy of yohimbine in the reversal of sexual satiation [ 16 ].
Differences in the effective treatment doses utilized here for the reversal of sexual satiation could be explained taking into account that yohimbine is a pure drug, while crude extracts are constituted of multiple components [ 1021 ] of which their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics are unknown. Then, in addition to the effects of Cm on the expression of sexual behavior, this extract at a high dose also improved the sexual performance mesicana SExh males that recovered their ability to copulate.
The effects of C. A number of studies has demonstrated that the mesolimbic chrysctinia comprises a fundamental target for installation of sexual satiation in males. The mesolimbic system is composed of mesencephalic structures, such as the ventral tegmental area VTAwhich contains dopaminergic neurons that send projections to limbic chrrysactinia such as the nucleus accumbens NAc.
This system participates in providing rewards for natural or artificial stimuli, such as food and sexual activity [ 32 ].
Mexicnaa has been demonstrated that drugs facilitating dopaminergic transmission in the mesolimbic pathway reverse the sexual exhaustion [ 29 ]. These facts suggest that the constituents of Cm may engage in an interaction with dopaminergic system in the mesolimbic pathway.
The comparison of the effects of Cm with those of chryxactinia in the reversal of sexual satiation reinforces this idea. In addition, it has been shown that the combination of subthreshold doses of apomorphine, a dopaminergic agonist, synergizes with subthreshold doses of yohimbine, to reverse sexual exhaustion.
The mxeicana injection of haloperidol, a nonspecific dopamine receptor antagonist, with yohimbine, interferes with actions of the latter on sexual exhaustion [ 20 ].
Therefore, dopamine has been proposed as a crucial neurotransmitter in the action of yohimbine on sexual satiation [ 20 ]. Taking these data together, it is possible to suggest that the prosexual actions of Cm in SExh males are produced by changes in dopaminergic transmission in the mesolimbic system.