Gender and Crime - Differences Between Male And Female Offending Patterns Some pursue relatively brief careers (in relation to male criminal careers) in females today may help explain recent increases in levels of female arrests. approaches to the study of gender and crime. It then explain these as the outcomes of broad social patterns. Specifically, this convergence between female and male crime rates .. been aimed more at uncovering empirical relationships. The Central Research Question (CRQ), “What is the relationship between gender , age, area, and people's fear of crime?” was created with the intention to get a.
Official statistics show that overall males commit or, are charged with, more crimes than females Scottish Prison Service, However it has also been shown, that in certain areas of criminality such as theft and fraud, female offence rates seem to be rising faster than males. The reason for this apparent discrepancy in criminality between the genders is the subject of much debate and ongoing research with in Forensic Psychology and for both psychologists and sociologists and.
In particular, the increased growth of female crime in direct proportion to male crime, is highly contested by both disciplines with regards to its causation and existence.
Research into causes of crime and gender have produced differing explanations. These range from proposals such as the rise in female criminality is merely an artefact of reporting and prosecuting procedures, to biological and sex role theories of crime, which attempt to depict females as being fundamentally different in nature, thus less likely than males to commit crime. Alternatively, power control models such as Hagan et al or control models like Carlen or Heidensohn and also masculinity theories, consider how differing socialization of the genders may have an effect on the individuals perception, with regards to all aspects of crime.
In these theories, the expansion of criminality by females are often explained as having emerged through their adherence to their social roles in a changing world or, their denunciation of it. For instance, Heidensohn proposes this may have arisen from the recognition of the bias of the system.
However in contrast to these theories, feminist perspectives argue, that all investigation is detrimentally limited through being influenced by gender blindness which inevitably dictates that investigation will be flawed. The reason for this they propose, is because of a failure to consider and explain women's crime in its own right and not as it is typically conducted, to establish whyfemales commit less or different crimes to men.
They argue that to carry out research into criminality with men being the basis of investigation, upon which findings it is thought we can simply expand upon, is to completely miss the point. Heidegger oppressed cal's structuration idea.
Therefore, this essay shall consider the reliability of the theory's proposed and what if any value can be gained from their contributions.
It seeks to evaluate current research both in its own right and also as a contribution to our understanding of the topic or strengthening the relevant arguments. Whilst finally, it seeks to identify and assess further areas for research.
It is a common media perception that the changes in female attitudes, particularly the emergence of the ladette culture daily record are an indication of a dramatic shift in female ideology and roles.
This has culminated in the popular belief that through the expansion and liberation of the female role, women are seen to be becoming not only more like men but "getting badder".
This view of change in females, has been linked not only to the emergence of feminism Adler but is also considered to be the result of economic development Steffensmeir et al b. The rise in female criminality as a result of development has been considered by Steffensmeir who although acknowledging female arrests do seem to have risen with economic development, reason's that very little is known about the way in which development affects female criminality, relative to male.
In a study that utilized Interpol data from 69 countries, Steffensmeir evaluated four alternative hypotheses regarding the possible relationship between development and a rise in female arrest rates. He found that if the results are more effectively controlled for variables of female status, economic marginality, opportunity for traditional female consumer crime and the formalisation of social control, then the relationship between female arrest rates and development are greatly weakened.
For example, upon considering the influence of the equalization of the gender roles as being causational in the rise of female arrest rates, he suggests that in general research has typically only looked at or indeed highlighted the countries that suit the equation. For instance, whilst female arrest rates in the developing nation of sri lanka are lower than in many developed nations such as the USA, nevertheless the research has made no attempt to explain contradictory evidence such as Denmark, which has lower female arrest rates than many of the developing countries.
Furthermore, he proposes that these such studies have assumed equality has a symbiotic relationship with development or the western world. Such approaches he argues are over simplistic, as this method of data collection is not only crude but is inevitably skewed by additional variables which also relate to economic development. He proposes that the few studies which have evaluated increased female status and criminality which use alternative measures, such as education participation levels for females rather than development as a basis, have failed to support this theory Bowker ; Hartnagel ; Messner Steffensmeir acknowledges however these studies are limited in sample size.
What is more this theory is flawed as it assumes that through development women are economic beneficiaries, however, he points out that often women are in fact marginalized, as commonly development acts to reduce female economic status and indeed serves only to increase economic vulnerability for large segments of the population Bowker Through development, economic pressures on women are aggravated by factors such as divorce, illegitimate children and female headed households, Steffensmeir points out this is coupled with an increased segregation of the labour market which forces women into low paid female occupations thus greater inequality for women in income distribution.
However on consideration of these issues, development could therefore be said to be inadvertently increasing female criminality in areas of traditional female crime. For example, theft and fraud the consumer based crimes, may arise from economic marginality not benefits, as the original theory predicts. They suggested that recession and economic marginality of women could account for any increase in female crime and not liberation or changes in the female role.
Steffensmeir proposes that whilst the opportunities for both male and female crime increase with development, it is the female who has gained greater opportunity through the changes in economic transactions.
He suggests however, that it may be because females are adhering to their stereotypical roles of nurture etc and not deviating from it that crime is occurring.
Steffensmeir therefore proposed that female crime should be seen as the outcome of complex socio-economic political and historical factors and that factors other than gender equality associated with development, may help explain cross national variance.
However, this basis for female criminality is one of necessity or increased opportunity. Whilst evidence from Carlen shows some women enjoy crime. In her work with female prisoners Carlen found women attribute their criminality to four factors: The women viewed crime as an escape route from poverty or their mundane lives.
Carlen highlights that theft is not always for necessity nor is it always to gain stereotypical female goods as predicted by masculinity theories, which view women as only committing crime within their gender roles, whereby shoplifting for goods of necessity or clothes and make-up are considered typical. Through using qualitative data collection methods, Carlen is able to show the women's own perspective and their reasons for committing crime. Accordingly, this results in the understanding that sometimes greed and the quest for excitement can be the motivating factor for crime and not need.
However a study by Anglin et al shows that drug use often results in criminality and in particular burglary and robbery.Gender and Crime trailer
They found that typically this occurs after addiction and ceases when drug use stops. The formalization of social agencies is considered to perhaps be a factor in the rise of female criminality, as development has created greater visibility of female crime.
Adler proposed that liberation was leading to a new type of criminal and an increase in women's contribution to crime. Furthermore Steffensmeir proposed that generally in developed countries this formalization magnifies crime thus maximising female arrest chances.
At the same time statistics from developing countries are minimized. This occurs for reasons such as, inadequate prison facilities for females, sex not being routinely recorded at time of arrest, whilst also less serious offences are often handled by the family. He points out that even in Iran today few reports or none, of female crimes are reported to Interpol. This is consistent with the findings of Arthur who stated that in some countries even serious crimes perpetrated by women, such as infanticide, are not reported.
However it should be considered that Steffensmeir argument contain a dichotomy. He argues both that female arrest rates in developing and developed countries are not consistent or universal, thus have no relationship.
However he goes on to use the same development or non development baseline to also explain the difference for the arrest rates that occur. This would require that the evidence from both developed ordeveloping countries should be consistent if this is to be considered a valid explanation for difference in arrest rates.
Early theorists such as Price and Adler held a similar view regarding the processing of female crime in the developed world. They propose female crime rates were in actuality higher than recorded as agencies and males in general often take a chivalrous approach regarding the punishment of women. We work very hard to create this website, and we trust our visitors to respect it for the good of other students.
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Gender and Crime - Differences Between Male And Female Offending Patterns
Moyer study Demeanour, sex and race in police processing also investigated gender differences regarding the processing of female crime. Based on the results of her study she claimed that different treatment as a result of sex or race is a myth. However the opportunity for error in the research is great and must be considered when evaluating the merits of her findings.
This necessity becomes apparent upon discovering that the basis for her study was police responses to hypothetical situations. This is also acknowledged by Moyer who admits that more research is needed to confirm her findings.
The error of conducting research in this fashion can be highlighted by the public statement earlier this year of the Deputy Commissioner of the metropolitan police Blair who openly admitted that institutional racism one of the factors Moyer tested for is still apparent in the police force today. On the other hand, The criminal justice system could arguably be accused of acting more harshly on women than men in certain areas. Female arrests for these crime categories has been as high as 30 to 40 percent, especially since the mids.
Trends in female crime relative to male crime are more complex. Some writers claim that female crime has been increasing faster than male crime, as measured by the percentage of female arrests. This has clearly been true in the case of minor property crimes, where the percentage of female arrests had about doubled between and from around 15 to 30 percent or morewith slight additional increases since then. Smaller but fairly consistent increases are also found for substance abuse categories, but they remain less than 20 percent for all categories.
However, the percentage of female arrests has declined for other categories like homicide and prostitution; and it has fluctuated for still other categories such as aggravated assault and druglaw violations see Steffensmeier,for a review of trends and explanations.
The patterns just described are corroborated by other sources of data. The National Crime Victimization Survey asks victims about the gender of offenders in crimes where the offender is seen. The percentage of female offenders reported by victims is very similar to or lower than the female percentage of arrests for comparable categories. Self-report studies also confirm the UCR patterns of relatively low female involvement in serious offenses and greater involvement in the less serious categories.
From a variety of sources, it is clear that females are less involved in serious offense categories, and they commit less harm.
Women's acts of violence, compared to those of men, result in fewer injuries and less serious injuries. Their property crimes usually involve less monetary loss or less property damage. Females are less likely than males to become repeat offenders. Long-term careers in crime are very rare among women. Some pursue relatively brief careers in relation to male criminal careers in prostitution, drug offenses, or minor property crimes like shoplifting or check forging.
Female offenders, more often than males, operate solo. When women do become involved with others in offenses, the group is likely to be small and relatively nonpermanent.