Winston Churchill: Secret conversations reveal views on Stalin and Gandhi - Telegraph
Churchill and FDR were very close. Both had strong familial ties to the other's country: FDR's family had come from England and Churchill's mother was. The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code-named the Argonaut Yalta was the second of three major wartime conferences among the Big Three. The Potsdam Conference was to be attended by Stalin, Churchill (who was replaced halfway through by the newly elected British prime minister. Churchill's Relationship with Stalin was not as strong as with Roosevelt and had more difficulties and differences then when they did get along.
It was the site of the Yalta in February President Roosevelt and his party were quartered in the room palace of which the President remarked, 'this place has all the comforts of home. It was held between 4 and 11 February and was designed to decide on the final strategy of the war against Germany and Japan and settle the post-war future of Europe.
Churchill's doctor wrote of Roosevelt: He sat looking straight ahead with mouth open as if he were not taking things in'. President Roosevelt, who died only two months after the conference, was accused by some of handing over Poland and the rest of Eastern Europe to Stalin and for allowing the Soviet Union to gain a foothold in the Far East against a promise of Russian intervention in the war against Japan.
Future Secretary of State James Byrnes, who was present at Yalta, recorded in his memoirs that, 'so far as I could see the President had made little preparation for the Conference'. Lord Moran, Churchill's doctor, thought that the President was 'a very sick man' with only a few months to live.
Churchill was to complain to Moran that: He won't take any interest in what we are trying to do. Churchill said of Yalta: The entrance fee being five million soldiers or the equivalent'. Junior minister George Strauss resigned in protest against the government's policy on Poland. In the late s, Churchill and Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden also came in for criticism when it became widely known that they had made a concession to Stalin that all former Soviet prisoners of war, including thousands who for whatever reason had changed sides and fought in German uniform, be forcibly repatriated.
But again there were fears that if this was not agreed upon, then the Russians might prove highly obstructive when it came to repatriating Western prisoners of war the Red Army had liberated.
Churchill's effectiveness at Yalta was robustly defended by others, with Admiral William Leahy, Roosevelt's Chief of Staff, later writing that 'Churchill, I thought was at his best at Yalta', in fighting not only for Britain's interests, but also for those of France, Poland and other small powers.
Positive results At the time, and despite some disappointments not immediately made public, the results of the conference were generally seen as positive. A verdict on which, at the time, James Byrnes agreed: There is no doubt that the tide of Anglo-Soviet-American friendship had reached a new high'. At Yalta Stalin agreed to collaborate in the establishment of the United Nations Organization, a project very dear to Roosevelt's heart.
Reluctantly, and after a great deal of effort on the part of both Churchill and Eden, Stalin also agreed to France having an occupation zone in defeated Germany. With the atom bomb still untried and the prospect of heavy American, British and Australian casualties in an invasion of the Japanese home islands, the promise of Russian participation in the Far Eastern war was seen as a great coup.
Churchill and Stalin confer - HISTORY
Months later, on 8 AugustRussia did declare war on Japan as promised at Yalta, three months after the end of the war in Europe, on the day before the atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. Later, during the Cold War, Soviet intervention in the war against Japan was almost invariably overlooked by Western historians, but it is now considered as one of the key factors in the Japanese decision to surrender, along with the dropping of the atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
The problem of Poland and Soviet relations The problem of Poland's future was a special focus of the Yalta conference. The Russian frontier with Poland would be moved westwards to the Curzon Line, a boundary previously suggested in the aftermath of the First World War.
Stalin agreed that free elections should be held in Poland as soon as possible. Byrnes"it was not a question of what we would let the Russians do, but what we could get the Russians to do.
Stalin stated that "For the Soviet government, the question of Poland was one of honor" and security because Poland had served as a historical corridor for forces attempting to invade Russia. Contrasting with his prior statement, Stalin promised free elections in Poland despite the Soviet sponsored provisional government recently installed by him in Polish territories occupied by the Red Army.
Winston Churchill: Secret conversations reveal views on Stalin and Gandhi
One Soviet precondition for a declaration of war against Japan was an American official recognition of Mongolian independence from China the Mongolian People's Republic had already been the Soviet satellite state from its own beginnings inthrough World War IIand a recognition of Soviet interests in the Manchurian railways and Port Arthur but not asking the Chinese to leaseas well as deprivation of Japanese soil such as Sakhalin and Kuril Islands to return to Russian custody since the Treaty of Portsmouth ; these were agreed without Chinese representation, consultation or consent, with the American desire to end war early thereby reducing American casualties.
Stalin agreed that the Soviet Union would enter the Pacific War three months after the defeat of Germany. Stalin pledged to Truman to keep the nationality of the Korean Peninsula intact as Soviet Union entered the war against Japan.
A Big Three meeting room Furthermore, the Soviets had agreed to join the United Nations, given the secret understanding of a voting formula with a veto power for permanent members of the Security Councilthus ensuring that each country could block unwanted decisions. At the time, the Red Army had occupied Poland completely and held much of Eastern Europe with a military power three times greater than Allied forces in the West[ citation needed ]. The Declaration of Liberated Europe did little to dispel the sphere of influence agreements that had been incorporated into armistice agreements.
All three leaders ratified the agreement of the European Advisory Commission setting the boundaries of post-war occupation zones for Germany: They also agreed to give France a zone of occupation, carved out of the U. Stalin resisted this, until eventually Roosevelt backed Churchill's position; but Stalin still remained adamant that the French should not be admitted to full membership of the Allied Reparations Commission to be established in Moscow, only relenting at the Potsdam Conference.
Also, the Big Three agreed that all original governments would be restored to the invaded countries with the exceptions of Romania and Bulgaria, where the Soviets had already liquidated most of the governments;[ clarification needed ] and Poland whose government-in-exile was also excluded by Stalin and that all civilians would be repatriated. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin during the Yalta Conference.
It was a promise that allowed the people of Europe "to create democratic institutions of their own choice".
- Churchill and Stalin confer
- 4.2-Churchill's Relationship with Stalin
- Yalta Conference