This article looks at the relation between rural- urban migration and poverty: who migrates, from which areas and income groups, how do the migrants compare. The relationship between rural-urban migration, household income and urban population may have the undesirable effects on poverty and. This article looks at the relation between rural-urban migration and poverty: who migrates, from which areas and income groups, how do the migrants compare.
Most rural employment is in small-scale agriculture, where the traditional role of people consists of unpaid farm work, rather than functioning as farmers in their own right. This is typically due to customary rules of land use, which limit access to land for rural people. In Kenya, for example, rural unemployment has reached over thirty three percent Economic Report on Africa This collective effect has a direct impact on the ability for to break their cycle of poverty.
This results in high dropout rates at an early age. Curriculum is often geared more toward academic accomplishments and to urban-focused studies than to learning useful skills that enhance rural livelihoods.
The resulting low enrollment rates, coupled with low completion rates, have contributed to the difficult transition into quality employment. As a compounding factor, education can be cost prohibitive and sometimes viewed as unnecessary in an agricultural society that is dependent upon farm working.
Young women are at a particular disadvantage. These constraints are accentuated by the pressures of early marriage and child rearing, which lead to a cycle of limited choices. Most females are married before the age of twenty four, with parenthood occurring even earlier World Bank As most rural Somaliland society does not value young unmarried women who are not attending school, inevitably, there are no other opportunities.
The consequences of the high population growth and lack of education and job opportunities in rural areas lead disadvantaged people to urban drift. Rural young sub-Saharan Africans put their lives at risk by moving to the city for greater employment opportunities and a smooth transition into adulthood.
The education they receive in rural areas tends to promote an urban orientation that it adds to the belief that opportunities are better in urban centers. Rural-urban migration At the international level, no universally accepted definition of migrant exists.
This term therefore applies to persons, and family members, moving to another country or region to better their material or social conditions and improve the prospect for themselves or their family. Migration is a process of moving, either across an international border, or within a State.
It is a population movement, encompassing any kind of movement of people, whatever its length, composition and causes; it includes migration of refugees, displaced persons, uprooted people, and economic migrants. IOM report Rural urban migration is a movement of people from one area of a country to another for the purpose or with the effect of establishing a new residence.
This migration may be temporary or permanent. Internal migrants move but remain within their country of origin. IOM report Migration is not only a coping mechanism to escape poverty; it is an opportunity for rural young people to feel a sense of pride, self-respect, and be viewed as leaders within their family and their broader community Aleinikoff, T.
Young people view migration as an avenue to improve their status, learn new skills, and transit into adulthood. As a consequence, migration continues to serve as the means to improve rural livelihoods. People are an integral component of the migrant population, both in terms of volume, and the effects they have on both their points of origin and destination. Estimates are that 15 percent approximately 0. Rural people are particularly disadvantaged; with inadequately developed education and skills, many find limited employment opportunities in the cities.
Most face a future of low-wage employment, unemployment, underemployment, poverty, drugs, and crime. The arrival of rural migrants worsens the situation by expanding the pool of young urban job seekers, which reduces the pressure on employers to offer competitive incomes and work standards to their workers. Urban areas are becoming extremely overcrowded and overburdened, putting pressure on insufficient infrastructures, schools, health facilities, sanitation and water systems.
This escalating urbanization has created a new context of poverty in which urban centers are overtaxed and unprepared to absorb increasing unemployment. In absolute numbers, unemployment becomes more prevalent in urban areas than rural areas. The situation is worse for young women—many who have migrated to escape forced and early marriage—as they face particular barriers to the labor market, much of which are attributable to cultural attitudes of men.
They may find work in domestic settings and in small businesses. More commonly, many girls are exploited because they are young, easily manipulated, unaware of their rights, and afraid to expose their negligent employers. As a consequence, many rural migrants are no better off in the city than they were in their village. By fleeing their traditional culture, the rural youth have become human rights victims with no parental protection or legal rights. Life in the city has resulted in marginalization and social exclusion.
To reduce the rate and negative consequences of rapid urbanization, policy efforts that empower and integrate rural youth into agricultural-based activities are necessary. If governments were to commit to this investment, the desire to migrate would diminish. Rural youth could evolve into agents of change with the capacity to improve their living standards, which is considered essential to promote sustainable rural livelihoods.
Theoretical perspective The study of migration in general and rural-urban migration in particular has for long been an important area of research in development economics.
The Effects of Rural-Urban Migration on Rural Communities of Southeastern Nigeria
A large body of literature has grown up in recent years around the topic in contemporary less developed countries LDCs. In this study we focus on one of the particular influence theoretical works, the Rural-urban migration theory of Harris-Todaro The model led to many applied studies most of which confirmed that the relative wages and the perceived probability of finding a job were indeed important determinants of a decision to move.
From the empirical point of view, the HT model generates unemployment rates which are implausibly high. From the theoretical point of view, the model leaves its driving force, the disparity of urban and rural wages and the fixity of urban wage, unexplained. However, the model, with or without fixed wages, can be modified in a number of ways to introduce many interesting aspects risk aversion, priority hiring, informal sector, travel costs The burden of the Todaro model was to explain why masses of workers moved from the countryside to the city in the face of sizeable urban pools of unemployed and underemployed.
To accomplish this, the model focused attention on the present value of expected earnings rather than current wage rates. The rate of rural-urban migration was held to be a function of the difference between the present values of expected urban earnings and expected rural earnings, with the size of the flow of expected urban earnings significantly affected by the probability of obtaining employment in the urban modern UM sector Related studies Catherine, Derik, Niel Roux and Jonathan MafukidzeConducted a study on the Views on Migration in Sub-Saharan African countries.
Their study findings indicated that an increasing number of Africans are migrating from rural to urban centers. However, the authors argue that African countries have not yet prioritized migration at the top of their policy agendas. Therefore, these scholars support promoting and disseminating better research data, increasing capacity building efforts, mobilizing government resources, and sharing expertise in the field in an effort to work toward guidelines that can better shape African migration policies.
Rural-urban migration and poverty: the case of India.
On Migration and Pro-Poor Policy in West Africa, the authors argue that migration is a significant livelihood strategy for poor people. However, the authors suggest that future regional and policy frameworks on migration, poverty, and development need to address key gaps in order to build capacity at the local level. By addressing these gaps, the authors conclude, increased attention to strengthening interactions between rural and urban areas may be a precondition to peace and development in the region.
The research was conducted in the urban and rural communities of Lesotho and Malawi, where experiences of children were referenced with first-hand quotes. The article indicates that, in the short term, most children felt ill- treated in their new families. But, over time, the orphans were able to integrate into their new family systems. Also, migration patterns varied. Some children migrated alone, some with other siblings, or with a surviving parent.
Sometimes, a child will return to live with parents after migrating to the home of an extended family member. As most southern African orphans are cared for by extended families, the authors conclude that policies need to address sustainable and economic community programs that enable households to provide suitable care for these migrating children. The authors also included two case studies describing migration patterns and employment experiences of young migrants.
One finding from the study indicates that migration, as a livelihood strategy, might provide young women with employment opportunities. Unfortunately, these opportunities may be at lower wages, in less valued positions, and in vulnerable health and predatory situations. Therefore, to understand migration and poverty reduction among people, the authors conclude that strategies must include gender-related determinants.
CassimanFocuses on seasonal and permanent migration patterns of the Kasena people in Ghana. However, to address the tie between culture and the rural home, the author examines the lives of the people that remain behind.
Collinson, Mark, Stephen, Kathleen, Samuel and Michelprovided a closer look at circular migration patterns in South Africa during Regarding those left at home, families were able to climb out of poverty if migration was engaged. For those families living in extreme poverty, the authors argue that policies need to bring services closer to their remote home villages to improve livelihoods and feasible migration opportunities.
Erulkar, Annabel, Tekle-Ab, Negussie and Tsehaiclaimed in their study of Migration and Vulnerability among Adolescents in Slum Areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, that most research about rural-urban migration state that youth are the most likely migrants. However, the authors take this research a step further by exploring patterns of youth migration and the role migration has in transitioning them to adulthood.
Drawn from a population-based survey of over one thousand adolescents aged in the slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, the authors determine that migration was commonly correlated with employment opportunities.
With Ethiopia having one of the highest rates of child marriage in the world, female migration is often connected to escaping early marriage. Therefore, migrant girls are especially vulnerable without the protection of parents and legal rights. Descriptive studies are non-experimental researches that describe the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group. It deals with the relationship between variables, testing of hypothesis and development of generalizations and use of theories that have universal validity.
It also involves events that have already taken place and may be related to present conditions Kothari, Further, descriptive surveys are used to discover causal relationships descriptive correlationaldifferences descriptive comparativeto provide precise quantitative description and to observe behavior Treece and Treece, Population The target population of the study is the people who live in the selected villages in Maroodi-Jeeh region, Somaliland.
According to the Ministry of Interior and Local Governments quarterly report onaround households live in these villages. The population is scattered in the selected villages. Since the population in each cluster is not known by the researcher, the researcher used this formula to identify the sample of each cluster. Selecting the respondents from specific cluster, the researcher used simple random sampling method. Research instrument The researcher employed Questionnaires as an instrument of the study.
The Questionnaires should compose of three parts one for the profile characteristics of the respondents, another for the IV level of povertyand the third for the DV rural-urban migration The reason of selecting this instrument is that the questionnaires are the most reliable instrument to get the necessary information from the respondents without fear or hesitancy.
- International Journal of Population Research
It is also less costly as compared to other instruments. Each respondent was provided a chance to express his or her ideas, options, views freely in a provided space without any undue influence of the researcher or his assistants. Validity and reliability of the instruments The researcher distributed the questionnaire to three Academicians to review the validity of the questions basing on the objectives. After the assessment of the questionnaire, the necessary adjustments made bearing in mind the objectives of the study.
To ensure the reliability of the instrument, the researcher used Test-Retest method. The researcher administered the questionnaire for a few people say 10 personsand then re-administer it to the same people after two weeks.
The response of the two tests is then analyzed using the t-test. If the significance is greater than or equal to 0. Data Gathering Procedures Before the administration of the questionnaires Before the administration of the questionnaires the researcher collected an introductory paper from the CHDR College of Higher Degrees and Research.
Rural-to-urban migration and its implications for poverty alleviation.
The researcher also tried to get a permission letter from the local government officers of the selected districts and villages.
When approved, the researcher secured a list of the respondents from the local governments in charge and select through simple random sampling from this list to arrive at the minimum sample size. Finally enough questionnaires are reproduced for distribution, and the select research assistants who would assist in the data collection; brief and orient them in order to be consistent in administering the questionnaires.
During the administration of the questionnaires The respondents are requested to sign and answer the questionnaires. The researcher and assistants emphasized retrieval of the questionnaires within five days from the date of distribution.
And lastly, all returned questionnaires are checked if all are answered.
After the administration of the questionnaires The data gathered is collated, encoded into the computer and statistically treated using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS. Data Analysis The frequency and percentage distribution are used to determine the demographic characteristics of the respondents.
The mean and standard deviations are applied for the levels poverty and Rural-Urban migration. An item analysis illustrated the strengths and weaknesses based on the indicators in terms of mean and rank. From these strengths and weaknesses, the recommendations are derived. The following mean range is used to arrive at the mean of the individual indicators and interpretation: For the level of poverty and availability of basic needs in the rural areas Mean Range Response Mode Interpretation 3.
A multiple correlation coefficient to test the hypothesis on correlation Ho 2 at 0. The researcher acknowledged the authors quoted in this study and the author of the standardized instrument through citations and referencing. Limitations of the Study There were some limitations that the researcher faced, and they are: The use of research assistants brought about inconsistency in the administration of the questionnaires in terms of time of administration, understanding of the items in the questionnaires and explanations given to the respondents.
To minimize this threat, the research assistants was oriented and briefed on the procedures are done in data collection. In anticipation to this, the researcher reserved more respondents by exceeding the minimum sample size. The respondents are also reminded not to leave any item in the questionnaires unanswered and are closely followed up as to the date of retrieval.
The analysis and the interpretation of the data were based on the research objectives. The data analysis was divided in to two parts. The first part analysis and presents the profile of respondents or demographic information of the respondents, while the second part deals with the level of poverty, the level rural-urban migration, the significant difference between the level of poverty and the level of rural-urban migration, and the significant relationship between the level of poverty and the level of rural-urban migration.
Demographic information of the respondents This part presents the background information of the respondents who participated in the study. The purpose of this background information was to find out the characteristics of the respondents and show the distribution of the population in the study. The demographic characteristics were described in the form of Age, Gender, Qualification and the employment situation.
In each case the respondents were asked a closed questionnaire to give full information about their profile characteristics, and to enable the researcher to distinguish them accordingly. Analysis was made using percentages and frequency, as shown on the table 2. This may shows that most of the people migrating from the rural areas are young and middle aged groups.
The bachelor holders of the respondents account for There were no PhD holders in the respondents. There is a large number unemployed labor force in the rural areas in Maroodi-Jeeh region, Somaliland. Because of the backward agricultural sector which is mainly subsistence farming, is less productive which cannot create employment opportunities. Some of the respondents commented that most of the youth and middle aged migrants rushing from the rural areas in Somaliland are job searchers, most of them migrate to cities to get jobs, and to create income, to support their selves and their families they left them behind.
Description of the Level of Poverty The independent variable in this study was poverty. Level of poverty was measured using 22 qualitative questions in the questionnaire; the researcher used five indicators to measure the level of poverty, which are: And lastly social network and support was measured using four questions.
The first objective in this study was set to determine the level of Poverty, for which respondents were required to indicate the extent to which they agree with each of the items or statements by filling in the number that best describes their perceptions.
Do you often see or visit the members of Agree 3 10 2. In the last twelve months, have you helped Highly agree 3 3 3. The second objective in this study was set to determine the level of Rural-Urban migration in selected villages in Maroodi-Jeeh, Somaliland, for which respondents were required to rate the level Rural-Urban migration by indicating the extent to which they agree with each item in the table.
Furthermore, regression analysis was used to quantify the effects of rural-urban migration on the rural migrant-sending communities in the study area using data on the projects executed by the rural-urban migrants in these rural communities and the various uses of remittances by the rural receiving households. According to Anyadike [ 50 ], the regression equation used is of the form: Subsequently, hierarchical cluster analysis was used to classify the magnitude of the effects of rural-urban migration in different parts of the study area based on the results of the regression estimates.
In addition, the Chi-square analytical technique was used to test the variations observed in the effects of rural-urban migration in the rural areas, while the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks test Kruskal-Wallis test was used to prioritize the developmental impact variables in the study area for policy formulation and implementation.
The Kruskal-Wallis test which is a nonparametric method of analysis is an advanced form of the Mann-Whitney test. It was used because unlike the Mann Whitney test that analyses the association of only two variables, the Kruskal-Wallis test analyses the degree of association between more than two variables.
In addition, the technique assumes an identically shaped and scaled distribution for variables and brings out significant results when at least one of the variables of analysis is different from the others [ 51 ]. All the analyses were carried out using SPSS program and the results of the analyses presented in tables and charts.
Results and Discussion 3. Literature abounds, as noted in earlier section of this work, on the importance of remittances as most people left behind by migrants always look up to the migrants for remittances. According to our respondents, the rural-urban migrants remit any or all of the food, money, and clothing to their rural households of origin. Nature of remittances and community projects by the migrants. This sharp difference in the proportion of rural households that receive remittances between the two states may be due to the fact that most of the heads of the rural households in Imo state are very educated and retired civil servants who live on their pension and depend less on remittances from their wards who migrated to the city.
On the other hand, the majority of the heads of the rural households in Abia state are not too educated, engage more in petty trading than in paid and pensionable employment, and lack sufficient money for the sustenance of their households. They therefore depend so much on remittances from their wards in the urban area as a means of livelihood. In addition, the most common remittance to these rural households according to findings of this study is in the form of money as revealed by The information on the amount of remittances shows that most remittances in both states range between 2, and 6, Nigerian naira.
Key informant information reveals that most of these rural households depend solely on agriculture and other primary economic activities for their livelihood. As such, a steady supply of remittances is viewed with utmost importance in augmenting their farm proceeds and their other sources of livelihoods despite the fact that the amount may appear to be too small. Furthermore, this study found out that the majority of these rural households does not even earn up to Nigerian naira per month from the sale of their agricultural produce in a month, and as a matter of fact they eagerly expect these remittances from the rural-urban migrants.
The fact that the rural-urban migrants mostly remit once a month is also an indication that whatever resources left at home for their relatives in the rural areas are inadequate to cater for their needs. It also seems that they mostly remit once a month when they have collected their salaries or wages. Finally, the results in Table 2 also revealed that This view was echoed in a response in one of the KIIs: This disparity in the proportion of rural-urban migrants who execute rural development projects may be due to two related reasons.
First, Imo state being the original state from where Abia state was carved out is more developed, and as such has less need of development projects than Abia state.
This is because more government projects exist in Imo state. In addition, the population of Imo state is more educated than the populations of most states in Nigeria resulting in Imo state population being involved in rural community developmental projects earlier than their counterparts in Abia state.
Chief Uche, year-old retired principal from Isikwuato interviewed on November 7, Some of the rural projects these migrants engage in include road construction and rehabilitation, sinking of community water boreholes, rehabilitation of schools, and awarding of scholarships to brilliant and indigent students.
Estimation of the Effects of Rural-Urban Migration in the Study Area In this study, the estimation of the effects of rural-urban migration in the rural communities places of origin of migrants is anchored on two categories of independent variables.
The first category of variables is the various rural developmental projects executed by the rural-urban migrants in their rural communities of origin. The second category of variables is the various ways the rural remittance-receiving households use remittances received from the rural-urban migrants. Consequently, the regression analysis results shown in Table 3 have a constant of 1. Since this calculated value is less than the table value, it means that there really exists a significant relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable which in this case represents developmental impact of rural-urban migration.
Regression analysis results of effects of rural-urban migration. The results in Table 3 show the estimates of the contributions of the independent variables to the development of the rural communities. For instance, it can be seen that each 0. These regression coefficients were subsequently multiplied by the frequency of respondents that indicated that they engage in the projects and the frequency of usage of remittances for different purposes in the study area so as to quantify the aggregate magnitude of the effects of rural-urban migration in the different rural communities using all the independent variables.
As shown in Table 4Imo East Senatorial zone recorded the greatest aggregate magnitude of the effects of migration while Imo West zone recorded the least magnitude of the effects of migration in the study area.
Aggregate magnitude of the effects of rural-urban migration. However, the aggregate results of the effects of migration between the two states show that Abia state has an impact score of The aggregate low score for Imo state means that the lower scores recorded for Imo West and Imo North were significant enough so as to neutralize the high score from Imo East. This aggregate score is further explained by the results of the analyses in Table 2 above where only The recipients of these remittances in the rural areas place high premium on the remittances, according to Pa Godson Eze: I usually look up to my first son who lives in Aba to send money to me for the payment of the school fees of my youngest daughter who lives with me, and takes care of my house since my wife is late and I am no longer strong enough to carry on with my work as a carpenter.
Even though the recipients of these remittances use them for specific purposes, the frequency which they expect the remittances also varies from recipient to recipient. As stated in the quote above, that particular recipient usually expects the school fees once in three to four months which represents an academic term in the school that his daughter attends. Elsewhere, the remittances may be expected on a biweekly or a monthly basis as noted below by a respondent in a focus group discussion at Onuimo LGA: I survive mainly on the money and food stuff my son and his wife send to me.
I usually engage in little subsistence farming and use the money they send to me once every two weeks to buy most of the food I cook in my house. The money they send to me every two weeks depends on the amount they can afford since my son is an artisan and may not be able to send the money in bulk at the end of a month. Madam Ifenyinwa, year-old widow interviewed on November 5, In addition, only Subsequently, using hierarchical cluster analysis, the area of study was grouped into three categories to show the relative developmental importance of migration in the study area using hierarchical cluster analysis as shown in Figures 1 and 2.
Aggregate magnitude of the effects of rural-urban migration on rural communities in the study area. Aggregate state-level magnitude of the effects of rural-urban migration in the study area. Figure 1 indicates that the magnitude of the effects of rural-urban migration is categorized into three with Imo East recording relatively high effect while Imo North and Imo West recorded a relatively low effect of rural-urban migration.
At state level, Figure 2 reveals that while Abia state has a relatively moderate effect of migration, Imo state recorded relatively low effect of rural-urban migration. The Regression results have established the fact that rural-urban migration exerts varying effects in different parts of the study area.
Subsequently, Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis analyses were used to pinpoint the exact influences of the independent variables across the different LGAs in the study area. The Chi-square test was used to determine whether the observed effects of the independent variables across different parts of the study differ significantly from the general effects of these variables as indicated by the regression analysis.
The purpose is to prioritize areas of interventions with regards to maximizing the effects of rural-urban migration in different parts of the study area. Subsequently, the results of the Chi-square analyses for the two states in the study area indicate that some of the independent variables differ significantly in their effects in the study area. In Imo state, it is only the involvement of rural-urban migrants in education that differs significantly in its effects across the state.
Rural-to-urban migration and its implications for poverty alleviation.
Again, to be able to isolate the senatorial zones where the effects of these variables vary significantly, the Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to the data as shown in Table 5. For the purposes of this study, a score of more than 50 means that such a variable is viewed by the respondents as possessing significant and desirable effects of rural-urban migration.
Kruskal-Wallis results of developmental impact variables of rural-urban migration. In the results shown in Table 5the scores for the senatorial zones that exhibit significant effects of rural-urban migration are made bold and italicized for easy comprehension of their various degrees of impact.
It can be seen that in Abia state, for instance, the effects of education of household members have a high impact on the population of Abia South. It has a rank of 52 as against the ranks of 39 and 36 recorded in Abia North and Abia Central, respectively. The results show that educational projects ranked 54 in Imo West as against 36 and 44 recorded in Imo North and Imo East, respectively. Conclusions and Recommendations This study revealed that upon migration, the rural-urban migrants usually send back remittances in the forms of money, food, and clothing and at a definite interval with most of them remitting once a month.
In addition, the rural-urban migrants also embark on and execute some developmental projects in their rural communities of origin. Both the availability or otherwise of these developmental projects and the various uses of the remittances are viewed by the rural population as an indicator of socioeconomic development. This study was also able to quantify the contributory effects of these rural developmental projects and the various uses of remittances in the study using regression analysis.
The different parts of the study area were categorized into areas that experience low, moderate, and high effects of rural-urban migration. The Kruskal-Wallis test was able to pinpoint areas that require more and urgent developmental intervention in the study area.
Having quantified the effects of rural-urban migration in the various parts of the study area, it is expected that the findings of this study will make it easy for governments, NGOs, policy makers, and so forth to initiate appropriate development interventions to augment the contributions of rural-urban migration in the area.
These interventions should be aimed at the projects which the Kruskal-Wallis test identified as needing priority attention in the different parts of the study area.
As noted earlier, each state in Nigeria has three senatorial zones and each senatorial zone has a senator. These senators are regularly paid some money to execute some developmental projects in their senatorial constituencies.
It is therefore recommended that the senators take cognizance of the needs of their various constituencies in the initiation and execution of constituency projects. Second, governments at Federal, State and LGA levels should ensure that social infrastructures are put in place in the rural areas so as to improve the quality of life of the population. Consequently, skills acquisition centers should be established in different parts of the study area.
These centers would be used to inculcate self-sustaining skills in the youth, at the same time providing them with employment and helping to stem the tide of rural-urban drift.
Finally, concerted effort should be directed towards improving the agriculture capacities of the rural populations since agriculture is their main source of livelihoods. If their agricultural capacities are improved, it will translate to increased agricultural produce and ultimately reduce the dependency of the rural households on remittances for survival.