The term curriculum can be conceived in a narrow way (as subjects taught) or in a broad RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION. An integrated curriculum allows children to pursue learning in a holistic way, Integration acknowledges and builds on the relationships which exist among all things. Projects and themes are valuable instructional tools for accommodating all . Teachers may have received training in a particular model and become. There are a numerous models of the teacher-student relationship in . in the sense that students (or their parents) have implicit trust that we, as educators, will . curricula incorporating more humanities instruction and legislative measures.
In this posting, we will explore metacognitive processes involved in building and maintaining stable relationships between students and the curriculum, teachers and the curriculum, and between teachers and students. While there are many interlocking principles within family systems theory, we will concentrate on emotional stability, differentiation of self, and triangles.
The above triangle provides a representation for the following relationships: Although any effective pedagogy would work for this discussion, we will focus specifically on the usefulness of knowledge surveys in this context http: And, what are some of the metacognitive processes that would support those relationships in becoming increasingly stable? Regarding the use of knowledge surveys, students would self-assess their confidence to respond to given challenges, compare those responses with their developed competencies, and follow with reflective exercises to discover and understand any gaps between the two.
As their self-assessment accuracy improves, their self-regulation skills would improve as well, i. So, the more students are aware of competencies in the curriculum and the more aware they are of their progress towards those competencies, the better off students will be. As part of a course, instructors can also guide students in exploring how the material is useful to them personally.
Activities can be designed to support exploration and discovery of ways in which course material relates, for example, to career interests, personal growth, interdisciplinary objectives, fostering of purpose, etc. In so doing, the relationships students have with the material can gain greater stability. In other words, the teacher is trying to ensure fit between student understanding and curriculum.
Regarding knowledge surveys, teachers would know they are providing a pedagogical tool that supports learning and offers needed visibility for students. In addition, once teachers have laid out course content in their knowledge surveys, they can look ahead and anticipate which learning strategies would be the best match for upcoming material.
When trust develops in a classroom, students not only know what the expectations involve but are set more at ease to explore creatively their understanding and ways of understanding the material. Knowledge surveys are particularly useful in this regard as students have a roadmap for the course and a tool structured to facilitate the improvement of their learning skills.
Teachers also have an interpersonal role in supporting the development of student trust. Employee less Authoritarian As an opposing alternative to the paternalistic approach some educators consider themselves to be contracted employees and the person in need of assistance is the employer who contracts for certain services to be supplied by the educator.
There is no obligation of the one toward the other beyond that of employer to employee.
Most educators are not willing to see themselves and simply employees of the student and obliged to do only what they are instructed to do by those students. Collegial non-authoritarian In this approach the educator would be seen as a colleague of the recipient of instruction, as an equal.
The collegial approach to the basic relationship is one which attempts to be non-authoritarian in as much as neither party has a position of power over the other. The provider of care and the recipient of instruction are as equals. They meet and share a common concern for the intellectual and vocational well being of the person seeking assistance. Together they discuss the situation, consider the options available and reach a decision as to the most appropriate and desirable course of instruction.
Educators are not the equal of the recipient of education in so far as knowledge and skills. They do not see themselves on equal footing with those who they teach. Contractual non-authoritarian In this approach the educator would be seen as a party to a contract and as such contracts with the recipient of instruction to perform services. If both agree to terms there is a contract. The educator is obliged to do only what is stated in the contract and the recipient of the service must in turn provide remuneration as stated in the contract.
There are several problems see also below not the least of which is that the parties to the contract usually have different educational backgrounds and knowledge of the intellectual condition of the potential student. It is difficult, if not impossible, to arrange a fair contract between parties who are so unequal in their knowledge and interests.
The rise of web sites such as ratemyprofessor. Students flock to their courses, and they achieve celebrity status on campus. There is a tendency for practitioners of this model to unwittingly adhere to the rationalistic conception of education, seeing themselves merely as presenters of inert facts instead of taking seriously their responsibilities as facilitators of informed and critical thought.
If post-secondary education is to be conceived of as the entertaining transmission of facts, the fundamental mission of the academy is lost. Another problem with the entertainer-audience model of pedagogical relationships lies in the tendency for such educators, while engaging in presentation, to disengage from their students.
Professors who are entertaining and are engaged with their students and who strive to achieve the goal of informed and critical thought in their classrooms are meeting the ethical obligations of the profession. Entertainment and education are not mutually exclusive. But entertainment alone is mere amusement.
Amusement is the discouraging of thought in favor of visceral excitement. Yet this model turns the academy into an amusement park, with students seeking out courses that amuse them rather than challenge them. Education is opposed in some fundamental ways to amusement, in as much as, far from removing the learners from the influence of their "muses", educators are to fulfill the role of the muse in prompting thought and creativity which are active modes of life rather than the passive.
Covenential The eighth approach enumerated here would have the educators seeing themselves as involved in a covenant with a deity or society itself and as such obliged to society to render care unto its members in return for what society had provided to the educators. The key elements of the covenant model CM are promise and fidelity to the promise. In this model the educator has received a gift of the knowledge and skills needed to practice the art of instruction.
In return the educator has made a promise to incur a debt in return for what was provided to prepare the educator to be a member of the profession of education. The educator is responsive to the debt and has taken on an obligation to the society that extended itself to provide the knowledge, training and skills of the educator to those who enter into education programs.
The educator, under the debt to society for training and renumeration, is obliged to provide society with the accuracy and fidelity in their professional pedagogical practice, and to be faithful to the promise to provide effective instruction. Historical Prospectives and Contemporary Concerns.
MIT Press,pp. There are not many educators who are ready to acknowledge any indebtedness to society see also below and the concurrent obligation to provide service to others in return. Why should education be anything more than another job? The three models or ideals are, respectively, Code, Contract, and Covenant.
These are based upon the analysis made by William May of medical professionals. When examining the manner in which May used these concepts, models, ideals and norms for behavior with regard to medical professionals it can easily be seen how they are as applicable to professional educators as well.
Each of these models has its own governing ideals, a different conceptual framework and the resultant perspectives that influence the decisions made and actions taken by the practitioner.
How has it been established that educators actually make decisions using any one or more of these models?Models of the Curriculum--Instruction
Through observations of educators making decisions and then through conversations it is not difficult to find expressions of justification for actions taken or avoided that incorporate a language of obligations towards colleagues, even against the interests of students, or obligations based on written contract or those based on some overriding sense of social responsibility and obligations to students.
In post secondary education there is often heard the celebration of the technical proficiency of academicians and the quality and volume of their publications even unto the avoidance of consideration for their skills in a classroom with students.
Why is this so? These ideals or models help to explain what is observed often enough that evidence is not hard to obtain that elements of these models are operative in the decision making or many professional educators.
These are written and unwritten, traditional guides, and rules to govern the conduct of the members of the professional guild. The purpose of such regulations is the development and maintenance of technical proficiency. The knowledge and skills of the members of the guild is of the greatest importance and value in maintaining the integrity of the craft.
There are written and official pronouncements made by the governing authorities of the guilds, and their aim is to foster a sort of etiquette among guild members. Members of such professional associations have their own special language, often have initiation rites, and are under an obligation of secrecy concerning the inner workings of the profession. Members have duties towards one another prior to the members of society at large.
Given this, guild members have deep feelings of solidarity which leads them to support one another and to be more cooperative rather than competitive. There would be a sort of anti-competitive monopolistic practices, such as price fixing, including the use of a sliding scale in order to maximize income. Teachers form their own professional associations and labor unions in order to maximize income, improve conditions of their labor and conduct political actions to secure increased funding.
Their associations effectively remove competition in the market place that could reduce income for educators. For the members of the professional organizations guilds the overarching aim appears to create those institutions and practices that provide for a life style, an image, a sense of decorum and basically a beautiful life.
The codes aim for the realization of an aesthetic ideal. They are not founded upon a concern for the welfare of society, but on an overarching concern for colleagues and for the maintenance of the craft itself. Because of this, five factors tend to mitigate against self-criticism and self regulation: Sense of community - this is very strong 2.
Power of the priestly caste - this is undermined by doubts and questions raised by colleagues 3.
Metacognition and Teacher-Student-Curriculum Relationships
Power of the modern educator unstable- based on power over ignorance and incapacities -undermined by admission of limitations on effectiveness of instruction 4. Suspicion of officiousness, injustice, hypocrisy - caused by the special language, attitudes and secrecy of guild members 5.
Basic conflict- there are two sets of obligations: Such obligations are seen as being responsive as an obligation or a debt owed to other members of the guild for training, admittance and privileges of membership. On the other hand, obligations to students are seen as being self-incurred and any duties involved towards the recipients of care are the result of the philanthropic acts of guild members. The educator enters the profession acknowledging debts owed to those who trained the practitioner.
This establishes a special relationship amongst those who make that acknowledgement that sets them apart from the general public. It establishes a relationship of debt and obligation amongst the professionals.
Developing the Curriculum by Oliva Chapter 1 and 2 Discussion | 21st Century Ideas for Learning
Towards the recipients of their instruction the acknowledgement establishes a relationship of largess. The educator regards other members of the profession as colleagues, teachers, and progeny. In the codal model there is the ceremonial taking of an oath in which the member of the guild professes what is owed and what obligations are incurred. Further there is a recitation of what appropriate and inappropriate conduct is for a group member.
This oath includes the codal duties to students and the conventional obligations to colleagues. It is set in the context of an oath sworn before the gods as witnesses but not as the originators of what the guild members possess. There is no obligation to the gods incurred in return for any gift bestowed upon the educators.
They are what they have become due to what their predecessors have given them: So there is no reference to a gift from the gods and no promise to return anything to the gods. But there is such for their senior colleagues. So this initiation oath and the acceptance of a code is seen as involving the educator in a profession because it was chosen, a chosen profession and a transformation that has occurred through the self chosen act of self transformation.
There are no obligations to a god or gods or to any transcendent source or authority. It sets the general tone as it recognizes that education is a profession and that it has responsibilities consequent thereto. The Association has consistently affirmed these responsibilities in major policy statements, providing guidance to professors in such matters as their utterances as citizens, the exercise of their responsibilities to students and colleagues, and their conduct when resigning from an institution or when undertaking sponsored research.
The Statement on Professional Ethics that follows sets forth those general standards that serve as a reminder of the variety of responsibilities assumed by all members of the profession.
In the enforcement of ethical standards, the academic profession differs from those of law and medicine, whose associations act to ensure the integrity of members engaged in private practice.
In the academic profession the individual institution of higher learning provides this assurance and so should normally handle questions concerning propriety of conduct within its own framework by reference to a faculty group. The Association supports such local action and stands ready, through the general secretary and the Committee on Professional Ethics, to counsel with members of the academic community concerning questions of professional ethics and to inquire into complaints when local consideration is impossible or inappropriate.
Now in this statement there is much more attention to obligations to disciplines and colleagues than there is on the relationship with the learners. Most of those duties are to individuals, groups and institutions other than the learners. Of special note is the seeming conflict between the primary responsibility of the professor as being towards the maintenance of the integrity of the discipline and the expressed responsibility to be an effective teacher.
Item one concerning the primary responsibility of an educator being towards the subject or discipline is in conflict with item four whereby educators are to strive to be effective teachers and scholars.
The conflict exists in so far as what is to receive the highest priority or attention: Here, there is a significant confusion regarding the priorities of the professoriate. Professors, guided by a deep conviction of the worth and dignity of the advancement of knowledge, recognize the special responsibilities placed upon them. Their primary responsibility to their subject is to seek and to state the truth as they see it.
To this end professors devote their energies to developing and improving their scholarly competence. They accept the obligation to exercise critical self-discipline and judgment in using, extending, and transmitting knowledge. They practice intellectual honesty. As members of an academic institution, professors seek above all to be effective teachers and scholars.
Although professors observe the stated regulations of the institution, provided the regulations do not contravene academic freedom, they maintain their right to criticize and seek revision. Professors give due regard to their paramount responsibilities within their institution in determining the amount and character of work done outside it.
When considering the interruption or termination of their service, professors recognize the effect of their decision upon the program of the institution and give due notice of their intentions. Operating with a code can help members to avoid the acknowledgment of a duty to report members who are failing to observe the rules of conduct that may be resulting in harm to others outside of the guild. We may read about a case of plagiarism or hear about scientific fraud at another university, but such serious violations seem to be rare or distant from our daily routines.
The statement provoked both strongly positive and critically negative responses from members of the profession. Some believed that individual faculty members should be responsible for speaking out and reporting misconduct to authorities when they have knowledge of violations and that, furthermore, guidelines should be developed to handle ethical breaches by faculty colleagues.
On the other hand, several faculty members expressed grave concerns about what such a policy might unleash. How could an individual be absolutely sure that he or she was right about a perceived wrongdoing?
How could one assess the seriousness of an infraction? What would be the consequences of a false or mistaken accusation? It also revealed the need for broader understanding of ethical issues and individual responsibility for adherence to ethical standards.
And while this seems a fair expression of the relative autonomy and freedom of the American professoriate, there are some who would argue that such a statement might be seen by some as a bit like leaving the kids in charge of the candy store.
Lacking external mechanisms for the development and enforcement of the obligations to those outside of the profession, the profession itself opens itself to criticism from the very public it purports to serve.
CONTRACT In the contractual model there is certain symmetry in the relationship of the members of the educational profession and those for whom they render service.
The Profession of Education-chapter 3 Teacher-Student Relationship Models
They are seen as nearly equal parties engaged in a voluntary association for mutual benefit. This model is one promoted in a time of frequent litigation. The enforcers of contracts promote envisioning the basic relationship between human beings in terms of an instrument that has a feature of legal enforcement.
It is a model in which the participants are seen as singularly motivated by self-interest and not philanthropy. Informed consent is desired by the recipient of instruction as needed for intelligent decision making in keeping with the goals and values of the recipient of instruction and in acknowledgment of the right of self determination.
Informed consent is seen by the provider of instruction as desirable as a means of protection against charges of coercion or any other charge that would hold the provider liable for the outcomes of the services rendered. This model is beset with difficulties and despite its being urged by litigators, practitioners are not taking to it in its entirety.
It is influencing educational institutions in so far as the taking of measures to minimize exposure to liability. Here are some of the problems.