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Sep 13, Inspirational quotes about marriage and relationships from John Gottman and others. | See more ideas about Inspiring quotes, Inspirational. for information (RFI) request for proposal (RFP) 86 request for quotes ( RFQ) structurational theory of technology use 33 supplier 43 supplier relationship. To conceptualize this relationship, we present a dual structurational The extended quotes are used here only as anecdotes in order to.
What is noticeably different from previous practice-based models, however, is that there are two sets of each element - one set representing the participation of claim makers who establish links and the other representing the participation of decision makers who navigate links.
Figure 1 Dual Structurational Model of Issue Network Emergence Figure 1 View large Download slide Dual Structurational Model of Issue Network Emergence To help interpret this model, we break its constituent elements into two components - or blocks of agency-to-structure transitions - tied together by the sequential ordering of processes introduced above.
The first block Block 1 represents the first instance of structural enactment in which organizational actors strategically direct hyperlinks to other organizational websites, thereby enacting an empirical hyperlink network.
The second block Block 2 demonstrates the second instance of enactment. Here third-party decision makers navigate the strategic hyperlink network created by actors in Block 1 to construct the boundaries of a social issue, thereby cognitively enacting the epistemic issue network. We now turn to the task of explaining these two blocks of enactment processes and the consequences they together have for the emergence of issue networks.
Enacting the Empirical Hyperlink Network from Strategic Linking Behaviors Conditioned, Strategic Linking From a practice perspective on technology use, organizational culture, past technology use, and institutional norms condition how the current technology is used.
In considering the emergence of a hyperlink network, we focus on two conditioning factors thought to affect organizational linking practices: This act of conditioned linking is identified as the first step in the dual structurational model see Arrow 1, Figure 1.
Motivations An individual's motivations to use technology often mirror his or her understanding of the technology's capabilities Leonardi, b.
For this reason, when referring to motivations what we are discussing are the interpretive schemes that actors apply when deciding where to direct a link. Perhaps the simplest explanation for why individuals in an organization choose to establish a formal link to another organization is to fulfill an expressive need to affiliate with a like-minded organization. From this perspective, links are motivated by the perception of topical similarity and, relatedly, the content quality of another website Park and Thelwall, More often, however, various modes of instrumental self-interest motivate link formation.
Part of the process of building one's reputation in an online issue community involves manipulating the trust-logics of a web-surfer by establishing links to other websites that are themselves highly trusted Fogg et al. As Gonzalez-Bailon notes, that the distribution of links often reflects offline resource or status hierarchies, which suggests that organizations poor in resources andinfluence maybe compelled to establish connections with more powerful, resource-rich organizations to enhance their legitimacy within the network, and contribute to their public perception.
Thus, the decision not to link to another organization that actually shares the same struggle may reflect an attempt to exclude them from the discourse due to differences in the way they conceptualize the underlying causes and the particular solutions to the problem. Institutional Order The aforementioned personal preferences underscore how a link creator's situation-at-hand i. But for many organizational actors, another layer of conditions operates at the institutional level.
Within an organizational setting, social actions in general, and technology use in particular, will always be at least partially structured by the norms and conventions that undergird the organizational culture Orlikowski, For example, in her research of technology use in the workplace, Orlikowskifound that work groups with a collaborative, distributive culture tended to use technology to support cooperative ends.
Whereas in another more competitive and individualistic work group, the use of collaborative software was considered a threat to the organizational culture and, therefore, was only integrated minimally into its work practices. In their examination of a climate change issue network, Rogers and Marres discovered considerable differences between the linking behaviors of NGOs, government organizations, and commercial enterprises.
Specifically, they found that NGOs displayed the densest linking patterns, linking within and across institutional domains. On the other hand, government organizations were more exclusive, linking only to other government organizations, while corporate entities avoided linking to other corporate parties,reflecting a more competitive internal culture. What this body of research suggests is that institutional norms and conventions, whatever they may be, condition the approach that organizations within these cultures take when deciding to whom to link.
However, the specific factors that motivate one actor's linking practices are likely to differ from those that inform another actor's linking behaviors.
However, their self-motivated linking behaviors do eventually aggregate to constitute what can be read as a digitally instantiated and, as such, publically viewable and navigable hyperlink system see Arrow 2, Figure 1. Enacting the Epistemic Issue Network from the Empirical Hyperlink Network Conditioned, Navigational Experiences Although the strategies that motivate link creation may be out of most linknavigators' views, once established hyperlinks have pubic implications for decision makers who seek to mine the information embedded in link pathways.
What connects the two instances of structural enactment in our model is the navigable hyperlink. Arrow 3a in Figure 2 indicates this transition. But it is not the hyperlink network as a whole that structures a link navigator's experience because link navigators never know the organizational hyperlink network as a complete system.
Rather, they are only ever presented with portions of that network as they make decisions regarding which links to follow and which to ignore. In the offline context, Perfetti, Rouet and Britt describe the cognitive processes involved as readers engage with multiple texts in learning tasks.
They argue that reading multiple documents like visiting multiple websites produces cognitive representations that include connections between texts. For example, one text may have information that builds on the information learned in previous texts, forcing the reader to update their mental schematic of the issue.
However, in an online learning environment, the process of making these mental connections between texts is facilitated for the reader by the physical presence of the hyperlink, which makes explicit that a connection indeed exists.
In their role as link navigators, decision makers are rarely privy to the motivations behind one organization's choice to direct a hyperlink to another organization.
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This means that when presented with a hyperlink, they must attribute meaning to it and the relationship it signifies by drawing on heuristics that are available to them, namely 1 their motivations for navigating hyperlinks and 2 the institutional order in which their use of hyperlinks takes place. The relationship between these conditioning factors and a decision maker's use of hyperlinks as resources to help them organize their knowledge of a social issue is depicted by Arrow 3b in Figure 1.
Likewise, as online readers, link navigators' interpretations of which hyperlinks are most salient and worthwhile to follow are likely to be conditioned by what motivates their searching behavior.
As argued in this paper, for most decision makers the broad learning objective is to construct and organize a schematic of the broader context in which the social problem or issue is situated. While these authors did not look specifically at subjects' interactions with hyperlinks while performing the search tasks, their findings lend support to the assumption that hyperlinks, like content, will be differentially engaged depending on the cognitive learning processes that a decision maker's task demands.
Institutional Order In many ways, decisions made about the relevance of a particular hyperlink are only indirectly based on a link navigator's attitudes toward the technology itself.
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In many instances, the broader social environment or institutional order in which the technology use occurs affects an individual's interpretation of the utility of a technological artifact Orlikowski, The need to enact a cognitive issue network in the first place tends to be felt most strongly by actors who are themselves entrenched in an institutional order, for example corporate researchers, foundation representatives, and policy-makers, all of whom are charged with making decisions about issues.
Interaction between Agency and Structure Taken together, the points made about the effects of motivations and institutional culture emphasize the variability in how a hyperlink can be interpreted and how that interpretation affects a decision maker's navigational choices.
The logical question to be raised, then, is: How do agency and structure interact in the context of a decision maker's navigational experiences? As Rogers and Marres argue, what a decision maker comes to know about an issue is conditioned by a combination of personal choices or agency and hyperlinks or structure. Specifically, where one chooses to begin their navigation of an issue space then determines the types of organizational websites one will have the opportunity to visit.
On the other hand, another decision maker may choose to begin his navigation of the same issue space with an NGO stakeholder. Given the tendency for NGOs to link trans-institutionally, he would have a greater chance of encountering a more diverse array of viewpoints. But one does not have to abide solely by a link dependent search technique forthe hyperlink structure of an issue space toinfluence one's navigational choices.
Search engines like Google are also important mechanisms for organizing information.
Search engines provide a user access to an issue space via a keyword search that produces hundreds if not thousands of relevant websites from which to start one's search.
While the choices appear to be limitless, these options are prioritized by the number of incoming links that each website receives from other websites.
Thus, which websites a user visitsis still conditioned by the hyperlink structure of the online issue space. They are enacted into being by those who have an invested interest in creating a framework of understanding for a particular social issue.
Having navigated the issue space and monitored her interpretations of the content and relationships to which she was exposed, a decision maker is then able to construct a cognitive map or network of what the social issue actually is to them and who its most relevant voices are. For this reason, we describe the second instance of enactment as being epistemic in that it represents the structural embodiment of the knowledge gained from a decision maker's navigational experience.
This marks the commencement of the cognitive enactment of an epistemic issue network see Arrow 4, Figure 1. The idea being that the comprehension of an issue is contingent on the way that knowledge is patterned and tied together.
Perfetti, Rouet, and Brittp. Being with you is the only way I could have a full and happy life. Like I can do anything. A dream you dream together is reality. There's no logic to these things. You meet someone and you fall in love and that's that. It is a person. And we are finally home.
But the sense of camaraderie that comes with a lasting relationship? These strong relationship quotes will have your heart skipping a beat. It will not do. My feelings will not be repressed. You must allow me to tell you how ardently I admire and love you. You will wish that it was. You can transmute love, ignore it, muddle it, but you can never pull it out of you. I know by experience that the poets are right: When we try to control it, it destroys us.
When we try to imprison it, it enslaves us. When we try to understand it, it leaves us feeling lost and confused. But finding a true soul mate is an even better feeling.
A soul mate is someone who understands you like no other, loves you like no other, will be there for you forever, no matter what. They say that nothing lasts forever, but I am a firm believer in the fact that for some, love lives on even after we're gone. I couldn't even believe it. That was the biggest thing to me.
I'd never known anything like the friendship that I had with him.
I could like him as much as I loved him. The confidence he has brings it to me. That's the way you should be with your partner. It feels like you have this partner who is going to be with you and also change light bulbs and do dishes with you.
Sometimes that's the greatest gift someone can give you. Learn to dance, young men, learn to dance. Make jokes and learn to dance, and you can land a Kristen Bell. Right off the bat he said what he felt. There are no games with him—he is who he appears to be. I feel fortunate as a woman to have a husband who loves me and shows me in every way. So yes, I do know that. And now he'll know I know. You'd think the dreamers would find the dreamers, and the realists would find the realists, but more often than not, the opposite is true.
You see, the dreamers need the realists to keep them from soaring too close to the sun. Well, without the dreamers, they might not ever get off the ground. It jumps hurdles, leaps fences, penetrates walls to arrive at its destination full of hope.