List of social psychology theories - Wikipedia
Causality is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), .. Thus, we need additional conditions such as temporal relationship of A to B and a rational explanation as to the mechanism of action . Under these theories, x causes y only in the case that one can change x in order to change y. A positive correlation is a relationship between two variables in which both variables either increase or decease at the same time. Theory verification manipulates the independent variable to observe its effect on the dependent variable, and controls the environment in order that extraneous variables may be eliminated. A central goal of most research is the identification of causal relationships, cause and effect – association, time ordering (or temporal precedence), and.
The second criticism centers around concerns of anthropocentrism. It seems to many people that causality is some existing relationship in the world that we can harness for our desires. If causality is identified with our manipulation, then this intuition is lost. In this sense, it makes humans overly central to interactions in the world.
Some attempts to defend manipulability theories are recent accounts that don't claim to reduce causality to manipulation.
Correlation | Simply Psychology
These accounts use manipulation as a sign or feature in causation without claiming that manipulation is more fundamental than causation.
As an example, a ball moving through the air a process is contrasted with the motion of a shadow a pseudo-process. The former is causal in nature while the latter is not. Salmon  claims that causal processes can be identified by their ability to transmit an alteration over space and time. An alteration of the ball a mark by a pen, perhaps is carried with it as the ball goes through the air. On the other hand, an alteration of the shadow insofar as it is possible will not be transmitted by the shadow as it moves along.
These theorists claim that the important concept for understanding causality is not causal relationships or causal interactions, but rather identifying causal processes. The former notions can then be defined in terms of causal processes. Science[ edit ] For the scientific investigation of efficient causality, the cause and effect are each best conceived of as temporally transient processes. Within the conceptual frame of the scientific methodan investigator sets up several distinct and contrasting temporally transient material processes that have the structure of experimentsand records candidate material responses, normally intending to determine causality in the physical world.
The quantity of carrot intake is a process that is varied from occasion to occasion. The occurrence or non-occurrence of subsequent bubonic plague is recorded.
To establish causality, the experiment must fulfill certain criteria, only one example of which is mentioned here. For example, instances of the hypothesized cause must be set up to occur at a time when the hypothesized effect is relatively unlikely in the absence of the hypothesized cause; such unlikelihood is to be established by empirical evidence.
A mere observation of a correlation is not nearly adequate to establish causality. In nearly all cases, establishment of causality relies on repetition of experiments and probabilistic reasoning. Hardly ever is causality established more firmly than as more or less probable. It is often most convenient for establishment of causality if the contrasting material states of affairs are fully comparable, and differ through only one variable factor, perhaps measured by a real number.
Otherwise, experiments are usually difficult or impossible to interpret. In some sciences, it is very difficult or nearly impossible to set up material states of affairs that closely test hypotheses of causality. Such sciences can in some sense be regarded as "softer". Causality physics One has to be careful in the use of the word cause in physics. Properly speaking, the hypothesized cause and the hypothesized effect are each temporally transient processes.
For example, force is a useful concept for the explanation of acceleration, but force is not by itself a cause. For example, a temporally transient process might be characterized by a definite change of force at a definite time.
Such a process can be regarded as a cause. Causality is not inherently implied in equations of motionbut postulated as an additional constraint that needs to be satisfied i. This constraint has mathematical implications  such as the Kramers-Kronig relations. Causality is one of the most fundamental and essential notions of physics. Otherwise, reference coordinate systems could be constructed using the Lorentz transform of special relativity in which an observer would see an effect precede its cause i.
Causal notions appear in the context of the flow of mass-energy. For example, it is commonplace to argue that causal efficacy can be propagated by waves such as electromagnetic waves only if they propagate no faster than light. Wave packets have group velocity and phase velocity. For waves that propagate causal efficacy, both of these must travel no faster than light. Thus light waves often propagate causal efficacy but de Broglie waves often have phase velocity faster than light and consequently cannot be propagating causal efficacy.
Causal notions are important in general relativity to the extent that the existence of an arrow of time demands that the universe's semi-Riemannian manifold be orientable, so that "future" and "past" are globally definable quantities. Engineering[ edit ] A causal system is a system with output and internal states that depends only on the current and previous input values.
Here is a sampling of some of the more influential theories that can be found in this branch of psychology. Attribution theory — is concerned with the ways in which people explain or attribute the behaviour of others. The theory divides the way people attribute causes to events into two types. External or "situational" attributions assign causality to an outside factor, such as the weather. Internal or "dispositional" attributions assign causality to factors within the person, such as ability or personality.
Cognitive dissonance — was originally based on the concept of cognitive consistency, but is now more related to self-concept theory. When people do something that violates their view of themselves, this causes an uncomfortable state of dissonance that motivates a change in either attitudes or behaviour Festinger, Drive theory — posits that the presence of an audience causes arousal which creates dominant or typical responses in the context of the situation.
Elaboration likelihood model — maintains that information processing, often in the case of a persuasion attempt can be divided into two separate processes based on the "likelihood of cognitive elaborations," that is, whether people think critically about the content of a message, or respond to superficial aspects of the message and other immediate cues.
Motivation crowding theory — suggests that extrinsic motivators such as monetary incentives or punishments can undermine or, under different conditions, strengthen intrinsic motivation.
Positioning theory — focuses on the moral orders that occur in conversations as a result of the interplay between the speech-acts uttered, the positions taken and the developing story-line.
Schemata theory — focuses on "schemas" which are cognitive structures that organize knowledge and guide information processing. They take the form of generalized beliefs that can operate automatically and lead to biases in perception and memory.